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Notebook D

Notebook D (DAR 123, 175 ⨯ 97 mm), third in the transmutation series, is bound in red leather. It is similar to Notebook M, with blind-embossed borders, a metal clasp, and cream-coloured paper labels with clipped corners on each cover. D is written on the labels in ink. The notebook comprises 180 green-edged pages numbered consecutively by Darwin. Pages D1 to the first entry of D21 are written in brown ink.1 The remainder of Notebook D is written in grey ink. Of 43 leaves excised by Darwin, 27 have been located.

On D1 Darwin made two separate dating notes: ‘July 15th’ and ‘Finished. October 2d’. Here, as in Notebooks B and C, the grey-ink dating was added between 29 July and 16 October 1838. Though Darwin’s opening date is an estimate, it must be very close to correct. The first date in the notebook is 23 July on D4. Darwin probably took the ‘July 15th’ date from M1, which is so dated. Likewise, Darwin may have drawn on N1 with its clear ‘October 2d’ for the closing date of Notebook D. The last dated entry is ‘Sept. 29th’ on D136 and the first date in Notebook E is ‘Octob. 4th’ on E3.

Notebook D presents a marked contrast to Notebooks B and C with respect to Darwin’s attention to dating. With his arrival in Shrewsbury on 13 July 18382 a new awareness of time is evident in the 25 direct dates he entered in the notebook. Thanks to these entries, the chronology of D1−136 (15 July−29 September) is straightforward. For this period, the abundant datable citations confirm Darwin’s direct dates; in addition we learn from references to the Proceedings of the Zoological Society that D27−35 correlates with the Society’s 14 August 1838 meeting.

However, after D136, dating is difficult. Along with Darwin’s differentiated sense of time comes a complex use of writing space. Thus the last quarter of the notebook involved extensive backfilling, and the internal chronology is complicated by the following factors: 1, gaps produced by unlocated excised pages D141−146 and D149−150; 2, dated and undated interpolated essays dealing with generation on D152−159 and D174−179; and 3, citations to the October 1838 number of Annals of Natural History on D151, 167 and 169.

Notebook D was filled in three months, by far the most accelerated pace of the transmutation series. The dominant theme of the notebook is reproduction. It includes a detailed abstract of Hunter’s Animal Economy edited by Richard Owen3 (D112−116 and D154−161) and several attempts to bring the complex laws of generation under a unified view. In so far as the notebooks on transmutation are a record of the conceptual growth of Darwin’s theory, Notebook D is the climactic document of the series. While Darwin constructed the basic framework of his theory in Notebook B and deepened and extended that theory in Notebook C, by the end of Notebook D he formulated a new answer to the fundamental question of his theoretical enterprise: what is the origin of adaptation? In evocative language, Darwin expresses a metaphorical yet decisive grasp of the adaptive role of competition that attends ‘the warring of species as inference from’ the Malthusian law of population: ‘One may say there is a force like a hundred thousand wedges trying force ‹into› every kind of adapted structure into the gaps ‹of› in the œconomy of Nature, or rather forming gaps by thrusting out weaker ones.’ (D134−135).4 The full articulation of the theory of natural selection from this first formulation takes place over the subsequent months and is to be found in Notebook E, but the image of natural selection as a wedging force persists through the Origin.5 By his reliance on the classical political economy of Malthus as a resource Darwin made competition in man the model for his understanding of nature.6 Moreover, Darwin conceives of his wedging force in teleological terms. ‘The final cause of all this wedging, must be to sort out proper structure & adapt it to change.—’ (D135). However, from the beginning of Notebook B Darwin sought a strictly naturalistic solution to the problem of adaptation. While he formulates his new theory in Notebook E, he examines at the same time its metaphysical significance in his abstract of Macculloch to conclude that final causes are ‘barren virgins’.7 Darwin’s ‘theory by which to work’8 is rooted in a teleology that relies on utilitarianism rather than on providence. Just as the problem of adaptation, inherited from Paley and Lyell, has theological and political underpinnings, so does Darwin’s solution to the problem: natural selection.


Link to pdf of Notebook D, 1987 edition

1 There are grey-ink annotations, indicated in bold face, on D1, D9, and D17−19.

2 Correspondence 2:432.

3 Hunter 1837.

4 See Limoges 1970, Herbert 1971, Gruber and Barrett 1974, and Kohn 1980 for interpretations of the Malthus passages.

5 See Ospovat 1981, Hodge and Kohn 1985, and Origin: 67. See also Stauffer 1975:631−32.

6 See Young 1985.

7 Macculloch Abstract DAR 71:58r.

8 Barlow 1958:120.

Cambridge University Library DAR 123: fc
Notebook D
Front Cover
[1838.07.15]
Cambridge University Library DAR 123: ifc
Notebook D
Inside Front Cover
[1838.07.15]-[1838.10.02] & [1838.12.17.or after] & 1856.12.14

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Charles Darwin

36 Great Marlborough St


Did Eytons intermediate. «hybrids, when» interbred. show any tendency to return to either parent.?
Is thea first cross, which makes hybrids. productive like geese?—1
Are the number of kittens between Lion & Tiger at litter as numerous as in common lion?2
Are theb number of nipples in domesticated very fertile animals increased?—
Where offspring, heterogenous, in plants are the number of seeds greater.?—
Mem. for Eyton.— Sir. R. Heron’s case of breed of pigs with solid feet.—3

1838

[in this Book some curious notes on Monkeys recognising Sexes of animals:]c
[All Selected Dec. 14— 1856]d
Towards close I first thought of selection owing to strugglee



aIs the] 'Is' over 'On'
bAre the] 'A' over 'H'
c[in this . . . of animals:] ] added pencil
d[All Selected Dec. 14— 1856] ] added pencil
eTowards . . . struggle] added pencil
  • 1. Refers to Eyton’s report of ‘a hybrid male and female, derived from the Chinese and common goose’ (1837a:357). See B30, B139, ‘Eyton says Hybrid about half aways’ and E169.
  • 2. See C228 and D8.
  • 3. Refers to an extract of a letter from Sir Robert Heron to William Yarrell: ‘There is a breed of Pigs, size «of the» Chinese, with feet undivided—internally—: Like a horses «foot» some had them, and on crossing them, had some with two whole «feet» and two divided feet.’ (Correspondence 2:141). The later uses of this passage occur in the context of characters that do not blend. We can trace these uses because the passage was scored in 1850’s brown crayon and annotated ‘(Dorkings feet. P. Chron.)’ which refers to The Poultry Chronicle (F. K. P. 1855). Heron’s report figures in Natural Selection and in Variation, always together with Dorkings’ feet. In Natural Selection, chap. 9, Hybrids, the context is set by Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, who ‘has stated that hybrids from between two species generally present fixed & constant characters partly those of the father & partly those of the mother: on the contrary that mongrels are either intermediate like hybrids, or resemble entirely one of their parents. (p. 453) . . . One case, however, seems to occur frequently with mongrels, almost in accordance with Is. Geoffroy’s remark, and which as far as I am aware has not been noticed in hybrid animals from between species in a state of nature; . . . namely either the perfect transmission or entire absence of some marked character of one of the parents in the mongrel . . . such cases as the mongrel offspring from the Dorking & other fowls, having five toes on one foot & four on the other—the cross from the solid whole-hoofed & common pig, which with Sir R. Heron had two feet whole & two normally divided— are probably due to this same difficulty of fusion in certain characters.’ (p. 456). In Variation 2:93, the reference occurs in the section On certain Characters not blending: ‘When Dorking fowls with five toes are crossed with other breeds, the chickens often have five toes on one foot and four on the other. Some crossed pigs raised by Sir R. Heron between the solid-hoofed and common pig had not all four feet in an intermediate condition, but two feet were furnished with properly divided, and two with united hoofs.’ Heron’s letter was received 17 December 1838, which indicates that the ink portion of the Inside Front Cover (Did Eyton . . . solid feet.) dates from December 1838 or later, that is at least two and one half months after the ‘completion’ of the notebook.
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July 15th. 1838  Finished. October 2d
As a proof. what trifling «unknown» causes act upon people. My Father mention, than for ten years he never saw one case of malignant erysipelas spreading over the head, not caused by a wound, when suddenly during one time he had three patients at very distant quarters of the county, who had had no sort of communication, were seizeda with it, & for ten years afterwards, he then did not see other cases.—
He thinks apoplexy affects people all over England at same periods



awere seized] 'w' over '&'
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When he began practice, he remember during a year or two he saw many cases of virulent cancer in women, & since that time it has been rare disease.— but now (July 1838) he has seen more case in a month, than in several previous years, two having consulted him on one day.—
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Mark at Shrewsbury thinks the half bred Alderney Cows take more after Alderney that the Durham,, with which they have been crossed—is Alderney oldest breed— He believes all pretty much alike.—



My Father
Water-in the hair a century since used to be called Worm Fever, as used much more latley diseased Mesenteric glands.— My Father has seen case of pleurisy, broken limb «in children» & other such disorders accompanied with some fever, be attended by the transmission of large number of worms
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the child not having passed them before.—
Hence disordered intestines are not healthy to worms, (like parasites of Tropical countries cannot endure this climate— .) —
July 23d. Eyton, a stone blind horse, seemeda to perceive turn on road where Nob houses to Eaton Mascott,1 where he had been accustomed to turn down.—
— applicable to birds migrations & Australian Savages.—




aseemed] 's' over 'pe'
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  • 1. Thomas Campbell Eyton personal communication. Eaton Mascott: 5 miles SSE. of Shrewsbury in the Atcham district.
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W. D. Fox1 has a cat. which he bought in Portsmouth, said to come from coast of Guinea, — ears bare. skin black & wrinkled— fur short. (tail cut off in progeny peculiar) limbs very long, eyes very large, very fierce to dogs «otherwise habits not different; tone of voice. perhaps rather different».— crossed with uncommon cat, exact variety unknown., three kittens, alike each other, partaking more «very closely» of form of mother: more than of the Common cat.—  1 aCh IX Mongrels Hybridisim b

Fox has halfc Persian cat. which bred with unknown common house cat.— had four Kittens. two appeared



a1] added in brown crayon to ‘W. D. Fox . . . of the Common cat’, crossed faded brown ink
bCh IX Mongrels Hybridism] added brown crayon
chalf] underlined grey ink
  • 1. D5−15 are based on conversations with William Darwin Fox, as is evident from his comment, 'no leading question was put' (D8). No direct evidence of a meeting survives; however, by July 1838 Fox was probably estab-lished as the Rector of Delamere and either man may well have made the c. 50 mile trip between Delamere and Shrewsbury during the period 23−29 July 1838. (See B176, note 1.)
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«so» very like common cat, that they were killed, & other two very closely resembled in form of tail, fur &c to the half bred Persian.— Here then we have clear case of heterogenous offspring from one impregnation ⸮is this one impregnation, or two impregnations one giving half character & other more of English, but the effect is the same.—

Fox thinks that when a wild animal is crossed with



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tame, offspring always take most after wild.— i.e that alw «no» domesticated ones have been so long as wild one under present form.— Fox has seen several cases of foxes & dogs crossed, offspring always more resembled foxes than dogs (Mem Jackall in Zoolog Garden)

He has seen in a show half Wolf & «half Esquimaux»a dog which likewise more resembled the wolf than dog.— appeared tob be intermediate between two parents.— this is very interesting as Esquimaux dog approaches to species.

Again he has seen several crosses between Esquimaux dog & common dogs & Fox thinks they decidedly take



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much most after Esquimaux.— this agrees perfectly with Yarrell & no leading question was put.—

Fox thinks half Lion & Tigers are exactly intermediate in character & Kittens alike each other.—1

Even in children of parents some one sometimes resembles one parent & one another & are not exactly inter





aFox . . . intermediate.—] crossed pencil
  • 1. See IFC.
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Where two dogs line the same bitch & «perfect» spaniels & setters are produced. one would argue the whole effect of race was determined by male:1 & How completely is Lord a Moreton's case opposed to this fact & views.—2
Fox says3 a cousin «one of Mr Strutt» of his used to breed to Common & Muscovy Ducks.— English. Common «China» & Canada Geese, & that theyb this first cross were equally fertile with pure bred animals.— Mem. number of Mules.—
«He recollects one hatch of hybrid geese very fine.—»
How is it



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  • 1. See Darwin's implicit critique of male determination in his comments on Erasmus Darwin in D19.
  • 2. G. Morton 1821.
  • 3. See Correspondence 2:111−12, from W. D. Fox, c. November 1838.
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with plants? This indicates a remarkable law, that first cross not se plentiful, second absolutely sterile.—

My case of Stallion, according to Erasmus preferring young mare to old, explained by Stallions, (according to Fox) being guided entirely by their smell.—

Fox says he knew «a» carter well, who placed his stallion as second horse between whe shaft mare
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& another leader mare,— this stallion though eager to all other mare had been entirely broken from their mares, (though horsing every month) & worked in the same cart in loose chains, by being at first beaten from her, & always accustomed to her.— case parallel to brothers & sisters in Mankind.—

The case of all blue eyed cats (Fox has seen repeated cases) being deaf curious case of corelation of imperfect structure.—



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Fox says in «Lord» Exeter's Park «or in the Duke of Marlborough» there is a breed of white-tailed squirrels, which form a marked wild variety. doubtful whether all are white.a Fox says the Half Muscovy

Fox says a settler near Swan river, lost his on two cows entirely, changed his residence a great many miles.— yet one day th a cow walked in, then disappeared, & three days afterwards came again, bringing with her the other & younger cow.—b



aFox says in «Lord» . . . white.] '3' added brown crayon
bFox says a settler . . . younger cow.—] crossed pencil
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[Fig.]
Fox says when common & China goose are crossed the neck is not intermediate in its peculiar long neck, but much nearer to common goose.—

What has long been in blood, will remain in blood.— —converse, what has not been, will not remain,— yet offspring must be somewhat like parents,— therefore offspring will tend to go back, or have none— the argument does not apply to first parents, because they are not new breed.— the first hybrids may be
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compared to animal with amputated limb.—
Heredetary thr Six fingered people, Hill «Lord Berwick» family with defective palates. heredetary & therefore exceptions. to above law.— Study what these monsters are:— are they «abortive» twins.— The fertility of first cross, as stated by Fox, is very important, as showing above facts as first cross being new species,

Are not dreadful monsters, abortive, just like mules.
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Fox's half bred Persians «cat» favour thea Persian side.—

Theory of abortive hybrids.— If mules did breed, the offspring would «as in all other animals» be like either parent, or intermediate within certain small limits (within which limits they might return to either parent), then according law, that in proportion as things are long in blood so will they remain, a mule «being new species» will have no tendency to have offspring like parent, but as they must like or there will be none, therefore a mule can have no offspring. = but as «badly» deformed people & as mutilations «(produced very quickly)» sometimes have similar offsprings, so will the worst mules (as real mule) have offspring,— slight deformities «as supernumerary fingers» (that is slight alterations of primitive stocks «relative to changes which every species undergoes») & hybrids between very near species (that is slight alterations of primitive stock) are heredetary: «Hybrids of» Varieties is different because not long in blood. = The case of union of perfect animals is



athe] 'e' over 'this'
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distinct case,— gradation from physical impossibility to (perhaps increased). fertility.— (but many animals are fertile, when offspring infertile,— two considerations are here combined). In last page, we have seen mules could have no offspring, & this being case, owing to the corelations of system, the organs of generation would necessarily fail.—

In last page. I should have said, “ an animal acquires th any new is only able to transmit «only» those peculiarities, to its offspring, which have been gained slowly, now all the mules
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have their whole body form of body gained in one generation, so it is impossible to transmit them, & as offspring must be like parent, therefore mule has no offspring & therefore no generative organ.—
Same Prop. better enunciated.— “ An animal Either parent cannot transmit to its offspring any peculiarity change from the form which it inherits from its parents «stock» without it be small & slowly obtained
NB. The longer a thing is in the blood, the more persistent.— «any amount of change» shorter time less [s]o.— the result of this is that animal would endeavour to return to parent stock. but if both parents are alike, offspring must be like
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Hence mutilations not heredetary,, but size of particular Muscles— When two animals cross. each sends his own likeness, & the union makes hybrid, in fact the parents beget child like themselves. expression of countenances, organic diseases, mental disposition, stature, are slowly obtained & hereditary; but if if the change be congenital (that is most slowly obtained with respect to that individual) it is more easily inherited.— «but if change be in blood long, it becomes part of animal &» by a succession of such changes generations, these small changes become multiplied, & great change be effected, but
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in a mule these conditions are not fullfilled.— «[My grandfather's theory of Mules not hereditary, because generation — highest point of organization1 false.—2
The creator would thus contradict his own law.
So far is there any appearance of animals being created. it is probable if created at once. wd according to ordinary laws, the character of offspring would vary, or rather they would not have offspring—
On the idea of generation being a slip «bud» from parent.3 if whole parent not entirely embued with the change, a bud could not be taken, without it either went back, or not being perfect would perish.—
  • 1. Erasmus Darwin 1794−96, 1:514, 'The formation of the organs of sexual generation . . . seems the chef d'oeuvre, the masterpiece of nature; . . . Whence it happens that, in the copulation of animals of different species, the parts necessary to life are frequently completely formed; but those for the purpose of generation are defective, as requiring a nicer organization; or more exact coincidence of the [maternal] particles of nutriment to the . . . appetencies of the original [paternal] living filament.' Note that Erasmus Darwin did not accept biparental formation of the embryo and, at least by implication, biparental inheritance: 'the embryon is secreted or produced by the male, and not by the conjunction of fluids from both male and female . . .' (1:485).
  • 2. Darwin is rejecting the position in B2: 'See Zoonomia arguements, [generation] fails in hybrids where everything else [all other systems] is perfect'.
  • 3. See Erasmus Darwin 1794−96, 1:487, 'This paternal offspring of vegetables, I mean their buds and bulbs, is attended with a very curious circumstance; and that is, that they exactly resemble their parents, as is observable in grafting fruit-trees, and in propagating flower-roots; whereas the seminal offspring of plants, being supplied with nutriment by the mother, is liable to perpetual variation.'
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The Varieties of the domesticated animals must be most complicated, because they are partly local & then the local ones are taken to fresh country & breed confined. to certain best individuals.— scarcely any breed but what some individuals are picked out.— in a really natural breed, not one is picked out, & few even of local varieties approaches quite to wild local variety.— our Europæan varieties must be very unnatural— Italian Greyhound is probably the effect of sev local variety many times changed
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together with some training in the earlier branches «as in common greyhound» & much intermarriage.—

In my speculations.1 Must not go back to first stock of all animals, but merely to classes where types exist2 for if so. it will be necessary to show how the first eye is formed.—3 how one nerve becomes sensitive to light.— (Mem whole plant may be considered as one large eye— have they smell, do plants emit odour solely for othersa parts of creation) & another nerve to finest vibration of sound.— which is impossible.—4



aothers] 's' over 'r'
  • 1. The following passage, Darwin's first in grey ink, could have been written at Maer during the first three days of his courtship of Emma Wedgwood (29−31 July 1838); see Correspondence 2:94−95 for Darwin's letter, of 7 August, to Emma, looking back on their cozy chat (goose) by the Maer Hall library fire.
  • 2. See 1844 Essay: 128, 'But if the eye from its most complicated form can be shown to graduate into an exceedingly simple state, it is clear (for in this work we have nothing to do with the first origin of organs in their simplest forms) that it may possibly have been acquired by gradual selection of slight, but in each case useful deviations.' In the margin of the MS fair copy (DAR 113:89), Emma Darwin wrote 'a great assumption E. D.' Perhaps in response to his wife's criticism, Darwin pen- cilled in the following after 'graduate': 'through the animal Kingdom & that each eye is not only most useful, but perfect for its possessor'.
  • 3. Darwin's strategy was in part rooted in his uni- formitarianism. See Lyell 1837, 1:89, '[Hutton's Theory of the Earth (1795)] was the first in which geology was declared to be in no way concerned about “ questions as to the origin of things;” '.
  • 4. See Abercrombie's critique of materialism, 1838: 26−27.
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Mr Spence remarks that the Fringilla domestica of North Europe is replaced by the F. cisalpina in Italy, which is so like that difference would not be discovered by an unscientific observer.—1

Transactions of the Entomological Soc

A capital passage might be made from comparison of Man, with expression of a of Monkey, «when offended» who loves, who fears, who is curious &c &c &c who imitates.— who will say there is distinct Creation required if he believes «hyæna & squirrel» seal & mouse, elephant, come from one stock.—
  • 1. Spence 1836:6.
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Theory of Geograph. Distrib: of ani organic beings.
Animals «of same classes» differ in different countries in exact proportion to the time they have been separated; together with physical differences of country: the time of separation depends on facility of transport in the species itself, & in the local circumstances of the two countries in times present & past.

The effect of physical conditions of country is not perhaps so great, as separation on be inter-breeding, for otherwise we could not understand the vast number
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of domesticated races.—

Athenæum. p. 505. some (very poor account) of plants of Nova Zenbla — in review of Baers work1

Edinburgh. Royal. Transact.— p. 297. Vol 9. Dr. Ferguson seems most clear that the ideosyncracy of the Negro (& partly Mulatto) prevents his taking any form of Malaria— adaptation & species-like, — —Says Negro— thick skinned2

My hairdresser (Willis) says black «that strength of» hair goes with colour. black being strongest.—
  • 1. Ferrier 1838b: 506, note, 'The struggle between the cryptogamic vegetation and the plants of more developed form strikes the observer forcibly when he turns his attention to the borders of the plains. The former, deriving more subsistence from the soil, advances unrelentingly and threatens to exterminate every other kind.'Ferrier is reviewing Baer 1837c, 1837d and 1837e.
  • 2. Ferguson 1823:297−98, note'On the negro skin': 'The adaptation of the Negro to live in the unwholesome localities of the Torrid Zone, that prove so fatal to Europeans, is most happy and singular. From peculiarity of idiosyncrasy, he appears to be proof against endemic fevers; for to him marsh miasmata are in fact no poison, and hence his incalculable value as a soldier, for field service, in the West Indies. . . . One of the most obvious peculiarities of the Negro, compared with the European, is the texture of his skin, which is thick, oily and rank to a great degree.' (p. 297).
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V. p. 63. Note Book M'. for case of change in food in insects entered by mistake1

Surely the fossil Mamalogy of Britain & Europe is African. & the only difference is by the extinction of certain forms from Northern part & not by fresh creation of new forms.— what is range of Hyæna? Hippotamus.? Indio-African, or pure Africa?— ||Fossil Elephant of Africa Most important under this view, & Hippotamus of Madagascar: because. contemporaries.

In introduction to Eytons Anatidæ.— recurs to idea of only animals from distant countries breeding!.2 «Mem 3 species of grouse»! Has not Goldfinch & Greenfinch bred, & surely wild Duck & «pintail» Widgeon!— Divides animals «world into Zoological Provinces» according to varieties of Man.?3 «In Australia. plants E & W very different.— Man not so, but N. & S. New Zealand & New + + + Caledonia. two races of Men, but not plants» will it hold good.— Thinks Temmink doubtful when he says No genera.—4 thinks
  • 1. See M63 'do. p. 157. Westwood remarks . . . sylvestris' and note M63−1.
  • 2. Eyton 1838a:1. 'The generally received ... [definition of species] is that of John Hunter, viz. that hybrids between true species will not be productive; and this, we are inclined to believe, is partially correct, but not entirely so, as some birds, in a state of domestication, have bred together, and their offspring been productive, although differing most materially in external form. 'It may be advanced, however, and with truth, that those animals upon which this experiment has been tried have invariably been brought from countries far apart, and that consequently in a wild state the experiment has never been tried; no fact, that we are aware of, can be brought forwards in answer to this objection. Should it prove true, that animals inhabiting different countries, and with slightly different forms and colouring, are of the same species, ... it can only be accounted for in this mode, namely, that at the universal distribution of animals after the Deluge, those of the same species, and derived from the same parents, going to different localities, have in a succession of ages been influenced by various local circumstances, as climate, the plentitude, the want, or nature of food, which causes have changed their form, colouring, and, in many instances, their habits.' Note that by 'recurs to', Darwin is referring to the similar point made in Eyton 1837a:359, 'All true hybrids that have been productive have been produced from species brought from remote countries, and in (or partially) a state of domestication.' (Passage scored.) Eyton goes on to explain this circumstance, as follows: 'May we not, therefore, suppose that it is a provision of Providence, to enable man to improve the breeds of those animals almost necessary to his existence; and that it is almost a necessary provision, as it is universally found that breeding in, as it is called, . . . tends to diminish and dwindle the race which has been subjected to it?' Darwin subsequently tested Eyton's proposition in his 'Questions for Mr Herbert' (Correspondence 2:181), c. 1 April 1839), Question 7: 'It has been said (apparently with little foundation) that amongst birds, species originally coming from distant parts of the world, are more likely to breed together, than those from nearer countries.— Has Mr. Herbert observed anything of this kind in plants?' William Herbert replied: 'I think species from remote parts are only thus far more likely to breed together than those from neighbouring localities, that in the latter case there is greater probability that they have been already approximated & have not bred together. I do not think the distance of their natural location can facilitate the disposition to interbreed.' (Correspondence 2:183.)
  • 3. Eyton 1838a:2, 'Mr. Swainson divides the earth into five Zoological provinces, corresponding with the continents of Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Australia; these are well known divisions of the world, and as such are convenient, but we must consider that those countries occupied by the different races of mankind . . . form much more natural Zoological provinces than those mentioned by Mr. Swainson.'
  • 4. Eyton 1838a:4, 'Many parts throughout the group appear to be in favour of Mons. Temminck's opinion [1817], that there are no such divisions as Genera in nature, the transition from one extreme of form to another being so gradual that it is difficult to say where to draw the line of division. 'Upon a minute examination, however, as far at least as we are at present acquainted with the species, there is always found some break as it were between the forms constituting contiguous Genera or Subgenera, and some tangible distinction between them, although in many particulars they appear closely to approach. It is probable, however, that many new forms will yet be discovered; therefore, in the present state of science, it is impossible to say whether this opinion of Mons. Temminck's will eventually prove true or not.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 26
Notebook D
D 26
[1838.08.07]-1838.08.16

Editorial symbols


there are some small divisions.—1 does not seem to think any improbability to animals being distributed after flood (!) according to affinities!.2 confounds, like Whewell3 affinity with analogy—4 Good table at end of distrib: of birds. Anatidæ.—5 Consult this book again.—

Mine is a bold theory. which attempts to explain, or asserts to be explicable every instinct in animals.

Heard at Zoolog Soc their Pintail & Common Ducks, breed one with another— & hybrids fertile inter se—Noa directly against Eyton's rule.
⸮Are the hybrids similar inter se.—

[27e-28e not located]





aNo] added pencil
  • 1. Eyton 1838a:4. See D25, note 4, 'there is always . . . approach.'
  • 2. Eyton 1838a: 1. See note D25−2, 'Should it prove . . . their habits.'
  • 3. Whewell 1837, 3:353−55, 'It will appear, . . . that those steps in systematic zoology which are due to the light thrown upon the subject by physiology . . . have been, . . . led to and produced by the general progress of such knowledge. We can hardly expect that the classi-ficatory sciences can undergo any material improvement which is not of this kind. Very recently, however, some authors have attempted to introduce into these sciences certain principles which do not, at first sight, appear as a continuation and extension of the previous researches of comparative anatomists. I speak, in particular, of the doctrines of a circular progression in the series of affinity; of a quinary division of such circular groups; and of a relation of analogy between the members of such groups, entirely distinct from the relation of affinity.' (p. 353). 'But the doctrine of a relation of analogy distinct from affinity, in the manner which has recently been taught, seems to be obviously at variance with that gradual approximation of the classificatory to the physiological sciences, which has appeared to us to be the general tendency of real knowledge. It seems difficult to understand how a reference to such relations as those which are offered as examples of analogy14 can be otherwise than a retrograde step in science.
      14 For example, the goatsucker has an affinity with the swallow; but it has an analogy with the bat, because both fly at the same hour of the day, and feed in the same manner. Swainson [1835], Geography and Classification of Animals, p. 129.' (pp. 354−55).
  • 4. Eyton 1838a: 1, 'Much has been said and written on analogy and affinity, and the connection by one or the other of them between the groups and species of the animal kingdom. We have not, however, been able to distinguish between them in any other manner than that the former is generally applied when the groups or species between which a connexion is supposed to exist are far removed from each other, and the latter when nearly related, we shall use the terms indiscriminately, as convenient.'
  • 5. Eyton 1838a, Appendix.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 36a
Notebook D: 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 (excised pages)
D 29e
[1838.08.07]-1838.08.16

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the «4» Struthionidæ, Mr Blyth remarked that greater difference ina than in many large orders of birds.1 The Emu & Cassowary closest.— Ostrich & Rhea closest.— (& two Rheas still closer).— Mr Blyth asked whether structure of pelvis & was not adaptive structure,2 like little wings of Auks which does not make that bird a Penguin.— (i.e. whether relation in one point or many) Owen answered that all characters might be considered as adaptive & that he did not see where the line could be drawn— thus the most remarkable character in Apteryx, small respiratory system; even much smaller



'11' added to page brown crayon.
aMr Blyth . . . difference in] added pencil, presumably from 28 when the latter was excised
  • 1. Part of the missing D27−28 and D29−35 (through the passage on Owen) are based on Darwin's attendance at the 14 August 1838 meeting of the Zoological Society, and permit reconstruction of the evening's formal and informal discussions. In the first lines of D29 ('the . . . closer'), Darwin made note of a comment by Edward Blyth on the paper Owen read that evening on the Apteryx (Owen 1838). This is followed by a question and answer exchange between Blyth and Owen (D29−30). Next Darwin noted mention of 'Animals from Hobart Town' (D30), which Proc. Zool. Soc. 6 (1838): 105 records, as follows: Mr. Waterhouse then directed the attention of the Meeting to an interesting series of skins of Marsupial animals, brought from Van Diemen's Land by George Everett, Esq., and presented by that gentleman to the Society; the collection includes a specimen of the Thylacinus, two species of Kangaroo, and two of the genus Parameles, besides others of more common occurrence.' (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 6 (1838):105). Next Darwin noted a 'New species of Moschus, characterized by Ogleby' (D30), which is recorded in Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 6 (1838): 105, as follows: 'Mr. Ogilby [1838b] pointed out the characters of a new species of Muntjac Deer, which lately died at the Gardens. ... A female specimen which accompanied that here described, is still living and has lately produced a fawn, which is interesting from exhibiting the spotted character common to the generality of the young in this extensive group.' D31−34 records a conversation with John Bachman, who read a paper at the meeting (Bachman 1838). The conversation was interspersed with at least one remark by Blyth (D33). Then in D34, the record of conversation moves to William Yarrell, who was in the Chair that evening, with interspersed comments from William Ogilby. Finally in D35, Darwin records a more theoretical comment by Richard Owen.
  • 2. See R. Owen 1838:107, 'The iliac bones in size and shape present the character of the struthious birds. The pubic element is a slender bony style connected by ligament to the end of the ischium, but attached by bone only at its acetabular extremity. A short pointed process extends from the anterior margin of the origin of the pubis. The acetabulum is produced anteriorly into an obtuse ridge.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 36b
Notebook D: 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 (excised pages)
D 30e
[1838.08.07]-1838.08.16

Editorial symbols


than in other Struthios. was adaptation to little Movement.— nocturnal crawling bird.— Wings reduced to rudiment.— clavicle scapula &c strongly developed to aid in breathing.—1

Animals from Hobart Town mentioned, it seems most of species from there now found in Australia

New species of Moschus, characterized by Ogleby, who observed that the young of this animal, which is so anomalous among true deer, yet is spotted like so many deer.— very curious like some facts of Mr Blyth on birds.—
  • 1. See R. Owen 1838:71−72. This section of Owen's paper on Apteryx, read 12 June, was devoted to the flightless bird's respiratory system: 'Mr. Owen remarks, that the system of respiration in birds is so obviously framed with especial reference to the faculty of aerial progression, and the peculiarities in the former exhibit so marked a physiological relation to the latter, that in the Apteryx, where the wings are reduced to the lowest known rudimentary condition, the examination of the accompanying modifications in the respiratory apparatus presented a most interesting subject for inquiry.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 36c
Notebook D: 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 (excised pages)
D 31e
[1838.08.07]-1838.08.16

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Dr. Bachman tells me line of Rocky Mountains separate almost all Mammals of N. America & many birds.—1 which however are most closely represented.— Thus the red breasted thrush is represented by one not differing except by black line,— A Bunting by one only differing by some permanent white streaks.— &c &c  19 a

Dr. Bachman has crossed cock Guinea Fowl with Pea cock Hen.— offspring female, yet so infertile never even in seven years produced even an egg.—  17 b



a19] added in brown crayon to ‘Dr. Bachman tells . . . &c &c’
b17] added in brown crayon to ‘Dr. Bachman has . . . egg.—’
  • 1. John Bachman.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 36d
Notebook D: 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 (excised pages)
D 32e
[1838.08.07]-1838.08.16

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a most curious bird, did not seem to know itself,. at last associated with the ducks.— most strange voiceoften in the night, like peacock.— tail as long as Pea hen.— about intermediate.— (In Zoolog Gardens there is hybrid of Penguin duck a variety of Muscovy) with goose!!)

Dr. Bachman regularly breeds «in Carolina» for his table Muscovy & common ducks— they are produced in full equal Numbers with pure bred (just like common mules) & lay many eggs but never produce inter se or with
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 36e
Notebook D: 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 (excised pages)
D 33e
[1838.08.07]-1838.08.16

Editorial symbols


parent species.— The hybrids do not vary (ie the hens all alike & Cocks all alike) More than parent species— Mr Blyth remarked only near species or varieties produce heterogenous offsprings.— «are not the hybrid pheasants & grouse different.—» (if so chinese pigs & common must be considered as distant species?? or is time the varying element). Then do those SPECIES which breeda most freely. & produce somewhat fertile offspring produce heterogenous offspring.

It appears certain that hybrid Muscovy & Common duck have been shot wild (escaped from Carolina?) off New York. therefore instincts not imperfect.—

Are Pheasant & Grouse homogeneous?b



awhich breed] 'b' over 'a'
bAre Pheasant & Grouse homogeneous?] added pencil in margin
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 36f
Notebook D: 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 (excised pages)
D 34e
[1838.08.07]-1838.08.16

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I observe Bachman calls these Hybrids new species.
Yarrell says the bird fanciers say the throw of any two species crossed is uncertain—
Yarrell remarks he has somewhere met conjecture that all salt-water fish were once salt water (as they almost must have been on elevation of continents) but Ogleby well answers that nearly all F. W. Fish are Abdominals. that order first converted— is it an old order Geologically?
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 35
Notebook D
D 35
1838.08.16

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Owen says relation of Osteology of birds to Reptiles shown in osteology of young Ostrich.1

16th. D Israeli (Cur of Literat. Vol II p 11) accidentally says “ —is distinctly marked as whole dynasties have been featured by the Austrian lip & the Bourbon nose” .2 if this be not imagination.— then old peculiarity overbears the crossing with females not thus characterized.—



page crossed pencil
  • 1. See R. Owen 1841a:289, 'The close resemblance of the Bird to the Reptile in this skeleton is well exemplified in the young Ostrich, in which even when half-grown the costal appendages of the cervical region of the vertebral column continue separate and moveable, as in the Crocodile.'
  • 2. Disraeli 1835, 2:11.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 36
Notebook D
D 36
1838.08.16

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16th Aug.— What a magnificent view one can take of the world
Astronomical & unknown causes, modified by unknown ones. cause changes in geography & changes of climate superadded to change of climate from physical causes.— these superinduce changes of form in the organic world, as adaptation. & these changing affect each other, & their bodies, by certain laws of harmony keep perfect in these themselves.— instincts alter, reason is formed, & the world peopled «with Myriads of distinct forms» from a period short of eternity to the present time, to the future— How far grander than idea from cramped
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 37
Notebook D
D 37
1838.08.16-1838.08.17

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imagination that God created. (warring against those very laws he established in all nature organic nature) the Rhinoceros of Java & Sumatra, that since the time of the Silurian, he has made a long succession of vile Molluscous animals— How beneath the dignity of him1, who «is supposed to have» said let there be light & there was light.— «bad taste {whom it has been declared “ he said let there be light & there was light” .— »

August 17th Two regions may be Zoolo-geographically divided either by developement of new forms in one., or apparently so. by the extinction of prominent ones in latte one: The latter will take place when Conditions are unfavourable to numbers of animals. as in changing from hot. Warm to
  • 1. See Erasmus Darwin 1803:54 note, 'Perhaps all the productions of nature are in their progress to greater perfection! an idea countenanced by modern discoveries and . . . consonant to the dignity of the Creator of all things.' Passage scored.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 38
Notebook D
D 38
1838.08.17

Editorial symbols


cold, damp to dry.— Thus Tierra del Fuego has not «only» one «Guanaco» of the characteristic forms of S. America.

With respect to future destinies of mankind, some of species or varieties are becoming extinct. others though the negro of Africa is not loosing ground. Yet, as the tribes of the interior are pushing into each other from slave trade, & colonization of S. Africa, so must the tribes become blended & prevent that strong separation which
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 39
Notebook D
D 39
1838.08.17 & 1838.08.19

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otherwise would have taken place. otherwise in 10,000 years Negro probably a distinct species— We know how long a Mammal may go on as one species from Egyptian Mummies & from the existing animals found fossil when Europe must have worn a quite different figure

19th. With respect to the Deluge it may be worth adding in note than amongst the Mammalia of Europe the shells of do— shells of. N. America.— shells of S. America.— there is no appearance of sudden termination of existence.— nor is there in the Tertiary older geological epochs.—1
  • 1. See JR.:212n, 'The Elephas primigenus is thus circumstanced, having been found in Yorkshire (associated with recent shells: Lyell, vol. i., chap, vi.), in Siberia, and in the warm regions of lat. 31°, in North America. The remains of the Mastodon occur in Paraguay (and I believe in Brazil, in lat. 12°), as well as in the temperate plains south of the Plata.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 40
Notebook D
D 40
[1838.08.19]-[1838.08.23]

Editorial symbols


There are some admirable tables on Geograph distribution of reptiles in Suites de Buffon.—1

Vigors has given list in Linnæan Transactions of birds of Java2

Caterpillars not being fertile is same as children not being so.— consider this with reference to “ new species & hybrid doctrine” — I have read there are exceptions to this in some larvæ of insects— (⸮glowworms) breeding— beet imago state fertile at once.—3 Consider this with reference to those insects, which have fertile offspring. Entomostraca & Aphides.4
  • 1. Duméril and Bibron 1834−54. See 2(1835):28, 196; 3(1836):47, 280; 4(1837):59−60.
  • 2. See Horsfield 1822 on birds of Java. Darwin's reference to Vigors may be a slip for Vigors and Horsfield 1827, which is also in the Transactions of the Linnean Society, but is on the birds of Australia.
  • 3. See Kirby and Spence 1818−26, 2:410−11,'If you take one of these glow-worms home with you for examina- tion, you will find that in shape it somewhat resembles a caterpillar, only that it is much more depressed; and you will observe that the light proceeds from a pale-coloured patch that terminates the underside of the abdomen. It is not, however, the larva of an insect, but the perfect female of a winged beetle, from which it is altogether so different, that nothing but actual observation could have inferred the fact of their being the sexes of the same insect.'
  • 4. For related discussion of entomostraca (Daphnia), see C162. For related discussion of aphids, see B181. See also Kirby and Spence 1818−26, 4:161 as representative of treating Aphides and Daphnia as analogous cases.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 41
Notebook D
D 41
[1838.08.19]-[1838.08.23] & 1838.08.23

Editorial symbols


The extreme difference of sexes, is probably arrived at in case of insects as glowworm

The case of one impregnation sufficing to several births analogous to superfœtation,1 & to successive fertile offspring in Entomostraca & Aphides

Developement of sexes in Caterpillar. very valuable facts— they are eating fœtuses, as young of Marsup. is sucking fœtus.— 2

August 23d The Rev R. Jones gave an admirable harrier from Ireland to Brighton Park—first rate bitch— tried to breed from her, but
  • 1. See B181, 'Ld Moreton . . . mare was influenced ... to after births, like aphides'. (Morton 1821.)
  • 2. Kirby and Spence 1818−26, 3:58 attributes a similar analogy to Virey (1816−19, 20:247−76 article on Metamorphosis): 'In them [vertebrate animals], he observes, a state analogous to the larva state begins at the exclusion of the foetus from the womb; . . . the digestive system now preponderates, and the great enjoyment is eating.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 42
Notebook D
D 42
1838.08.23

Editorial symbols


her offspring came out one big & one small. Now Jones, before this happened from her looks thougt she was halfbred Beagle Staghound.«++» the grandchildren went back to either paret, & breed not fixed. though she resembled a harrier & her husband was pure Harrier.— «The peculiarities of our breeds must have been acquired, & hence this is then case of avitisma. ++»
Three gentlemen of party all thought with pigs &c, that hybrids were uncertain.
Mr Drinkwater thought that a pure blooded «“ first blood” » animal must have gone on for many years, before deserves name «to be so called»,— the short horned cattle have gone on for 50 or 70? years— now «well fixed» breed,: Jones says Sussex cattle



a«The peculiarities . . . avitism»] in margin with marked connection to 'Staghound', presume passage added.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 43
Notebook D
D 43
1838.08.23

Editorial symbols


were all white headed, but this was bred out & now all are pure red, yet calf every now & then born with white head (,or «short-horned with» black lip) & then calf «in both cases» is killed.

Notes from Glen Roy Note Book.—1
Why is not Tetrao Scoticus. an american form (if so)?.—2

A Sphepherd of Glen Turret. said he learnt to know lambs, because in their faces they were most like their mothers believes this resemblance general. ⸮depends upon mother bein[g] oldest breed?. — —3 Quarterly Journal of Agriculture p. 367. Dec. 1837. Generally— received
  • 1. Immediately after Darwin's field trip to Glen Roy (23−29 June 1838) he began Notebooks D and M in Shrewsbury. On the field trip, Darwin 'tested' two important hereditary questions against the experience of shepherds he encountered on his way: are the progeny of a cross 'heterogeneous' or are they uniformly like one parent, and are the characters of males dominant over those of females. The shepherds' responses were transferred from the Glen Roy Notebook and the these questions are pursued in early Notebook D. In most cases Darwin rewrote the entries from the Glen Roy Notebook without conceptual change. However, it is clear from notes D44−2 and D44−4 that Darwin added an interpretative gloss on selective breeding when he 'copied' those two entries.
  • 2. See GR126. 'Why is the Tetrao scoticus & Tetrao—not an American form'.
  • 3. See GR125.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 44
Notebook D
D 44
1838.08.23

Editorial symbols


opinion that male impresses offspring more than female, yet instances given on opposite side,—1 «The theory of males impressing most is in harmony with their wars & rivalry.—»

The very many breeds of animals in Britain shows, with the aid of seclusion in breeding. how easy races or varieties are made.—2

The Highland Shepherd dogs, coloured like Magellanic Fox.— peculiar hair & appearance— good case of Provincial Breed—3 Highland Sheep jet black legs, & face & tail, just like species.— high active breedin[g]4

[45e-46e not located]



  • 1. See GR1. Anonymous 1838:367, 'According to the generally received opinion, that the male imprints his characters more indelibly than the females on the progeny, there may be a risk of breeding from too large a horse for the usual purposes of the farm. . .'
  • 2. See GR1−2, 'Mere fact of many races of Animals in Britain shows that either races soon made or crosses difficult'. Note Darwin's emphasis on 'seclusion' in rewriting GR2.
  • 3. See GR2.
  • 4. SeeGR11, 'Black faced sheep, sometimes mottled with white black legs & tail like species in colouring'. Note Darwin's emphasis on 'high active breeding' in rewriting GR11.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 46.1: 25v
NS I Chap 5-25 Note, Notebook D: 47-48 (excised page)
D 47e

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half breed liable to vary. I asked this in many ways, but received same answer.— Thought lambs were more like father than Mother.— The cross not so hardy as Black faced, but more tendency to fatten— This man confirmed my account of the Shepherd dogs.—1
Aug. 24th. Was struck with pink shade on plumage of the Pelican.— Mem pink spots on Albatross, on some Gulls. Flamingo— (Spoonbill Wader. Ibis)— laws of plumage might possibly be made out.—




page crossed pencil
  • 1. See GR25. Note the parallel concern with character transmission in early Notebook D. Also note that Darwin did not copy the speculative comment in GR31,'are those animals subject to much variation which have lately acquired their peculiarities??'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 46.1: 25r
NS I Chap 5-25 Note, Notebook D: 47-48 (excised page)
D 48e

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August 25th Athenæum (1838) p. 611. L.d Tankerville account of wild cattle of Chillingham,— habits peculiar,—young one 203 days old butted violently. & fell.—a gore to death the old & woundedb,see Annals. vol. 2. 1839.—c 1 are bad breeders & subject to the rush as all animals which breed, in & in are— colour white, uniform.—crafty, go in file, hide their young., bold.—2 a Mr W: Hall remarked that it was against all rules their preserving character & breeding in & in—3 Nonsense4 a flock of more than 100.—d e 5 Agrees, «nearly» with. the account. given by Boethius of ancient Caledonian Cattle.f 6 Ch 3.g 7 Instincth



pin mark
aAugust 25th . . . fell.—] crossed ink
bgore to . . . wounded] underlined brown crayon
csee Annals. vol. 2. 1839.—] added brown ink
da Mr. W: Hall . . . 100.—] crossed faded brown ink ea Mr. W: Hall . . . 100.—] crossed pencil
fAgrees . . . Caledonian Cattle.] added faded brown ink
gCh 3] added brown crayon, underlined
hInstinct] added to page brown crayon
  • 1. Hindmarsh 1839a.
  • 2. Tankerville and Hindmarsh 1838.
  • 3. Tankerville and Hindmarsh 1838:612, 'Mr. Webb Hall thought this an important paper, although opposed in its results to the received opinions of cattlebreeders. Here was a race breeding in and in, yet retaining all its beauty, strength and vigour. This was opposed to all known facts.— Mr. Hall's remarks excited con- siderable interest; and it appeared, that in the present instance great care had been taken to prevent the deterioration of the breed, which had undoubtedly taken place in other herds.'
  • 4. Notwithstanding Darwin's strong comment, Mr. Hall's problem persisted as a difficulty. See Natural Selection, chap. 3, 'On the possibility of all organic beings occasionally crossing', p. 37.'On the other hand some competent judges have doubted the ill effects of inter- breeding. . . . Again the case of the half-wild cattle in Chillingham which have gone on interbreeding for the last 400 or 500 years seems a strong case; but Lord Tankerville, the owner, expressly states that 'they are bad breeders' (Hindmarsh 1839a).
  • 5. Tankerville and Hindmarsh 1838:612, 'There are about 80 in the herd, comprising 25 bulls, 40 cows, and 5 steers, of various ages.'
  • 6. Boece 1526.
  • 7. Darwin maintained a long standing interest in the 'wild' Chillingham cattle. Accordingly D48 forms part of a complex archival record. This page was filed with Darwin's material for Natural Selection, chap. 5, 'The Struggle for Existence' (DAR 46.1), where it appears to have been pinned to the following note on Falkland cattle, which is based on information provided by Darwin's
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 49
Notebook D
D 49
1838.08.25-1838.08.28

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L'Institut. p. 249. (1838). Eggs discovered to Tænia.— hard so as to resist external influence.—1

27tha. August. There must be some law, that whatever organization an animal has, it tends to multiply & IMPROVE on it.— Articulate animals must articulate. i in vertebrates tendency to improve in intellect,— if generation in condensation of changes. then animals must tend to improve.— yet fish same as, or lower than in old days: «for a very old variety will be harder to vary, & therefore more apt to be extinguished.— ???>»b

Mayo (.Philosop of Living) quote Whewell as profound. because he says length of days adapted to duration of sleep of man!!!2 whole universe so adapted!!! & not man to Planets.— instance of arrogance!!



a27] '7' over '6'
b«for a ... extinguished.—???»] altered hand, presume passage added
  • 1. Dujardin 1838:249, 'M. Dujardin conclut de là que les oeufs de Toenia protégés par une coque très résistante peuvent résister aux causes extérieures de destruction et attendre dans les lieux où ils ont été disséminés un instant favorable pour se développer, et que, parconséquent, pour expliquer l'apparition de ces Entozoaires dans les animaux, il n'est pas nécessaire de recourir à l'hypothèse de la génération spontanée, comme l'a fait Rudolphi, . . .'
  • 2. H. Mayo 1838: 146−48, 'Mr. Whewell observes [1833:39], in reference to sleep, 'Man in all nations and ages has taken his principal rest once in twenty-four hours, and the regularity of this practice seems most suitable to his health...'That sleep ... so curiously adjusted to the length of diurnal revolution, Mr. Whewell has shown to be an additional proof of the existence of God, is felt by every one to prove His benevolence. . .'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 50
Notebook D
D 50
1838.08.29

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August— 29th.— Macleay in A. Smith's Zoolog.— of Africa.—1 p.4. sticks to genus or group of any kind not being perfect till circular.2 p.5 Most clearly shows that genus expresses as now used almost any group.—3 all groups natural (p 6) as expressing natural affinities 4 Macleays plan of arrangement depends on the organs judged to be of importance in inverse ratio to their variability.— (Now cæteris paribus these will be the oldest)5 “The most important characters break down in certain species & become worthless— Mammalia Edentata 6 We do (p 6) say such is group. because it has such characters of importance, “ but we say such happens to be the character, of no matter of what importance, which prevails throughout the group & serves to insulate them it” .— i.e what characters
  • 1. MacLeay 1838. Darwin's copy was annotated in 1838, as is evident from the close fit between the marginalia and D50−53. One should not be misled by the title page: Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa, Andrew Smith, Invertebratae, 1849, which was no doubt added when Darwin's subscription parts were bound in volumes. In another copy, at Cambridge University Library, the Smith 1849 title page is followed by a separate title page with Illustrations of the Annulosa of South Africa, W. S. MacLeay, 1838. It is not clear that MacLeay's work was separately published. Notwithstanding the 1838 title page, it does not seem to have been separately advertised. Publishers' Circular 1 (1838) lists no separate work for MacLeay; however, 'Part 3 Insects' is listed as 'just published' in the 1 October 1838 issue.
  • 2. MacLeay 1838:4, 'Every one knows that sometimes sub-genera, and at other times even sub-sections of genera, are in the most unphilosophical manner published as genera. Too often we find every thing a genus which some gnathoclast, with Scapula in hand, has thought proper, in his good pleasure, to call so. Some persons again there are, who on a first inspection can oracularly decide that this groupe is a sub-genus, and that another groupe is of “ full generic value.” To such clearness of vision I can lay no claim; yet I cannot help thinking that there is a mode of discovering the true subordination of these several kinds of groupes—nay, I am sure this discovery will ever be the result of calm patience, of keeping before our view a great number of the species of any family, and finally of following up that aphorism of a distinguished botanist, which says, “ Omnis sectio naturalis circulum, per se clausum, exhibet.” ' Darwin scored the lines with the Latin aphorism.
  • 3. MacLeay 1838:5, 'Nay, has the word genus any signification which is universally deemed definite? I fear in all such cases of assertion, there is a latent disposition of the human mind to erect an arbitrary standard, founded on the supposed value of some point of structure. Thus one person says that the genera of Mammalia ought to be established on the differences in their system of dentition; and yet there are some genera of Mammalia where almost every species varies in the number and form of its teeth; so that to adopt the rule, we must consider every species of such genera to be a genus itself. Another person will tell us, like Linnaeus, that there are as many genera, as aggregations of different species present similar constructions of some arbitrarily selected organs, such as those of fructification in phaenogamous plants, or the teeth in Mammalia. In this sense it is evident that a genus [Darwin underlined 'genus'] may be made to signify any groupe whatever, as its extent will depend on the nature of the structure selected.' Passage scored.
  • 4. MacLeay 1838:6, 'But here some one may observe that all groupes are arbitrary and artificial, since after all they must depend on the selection and good pleasure of man. To this I answer that affinities are natural; and if all these affinities are expressed by any mode of grouping, it follows also that the groupes must be natural; although certainly, these last must in some degree have depended on our selection.' Darwin scored 'To this I answer . . . must be natural'.
  • 5. MacLeay 1838:6, 'My plan, as is well known, has ever been not to estimate the value of any arrangement by the value in animal economy of the structure upon which this arrangement is founded, but to make the importance of every organ or structure for purposes of arrangement, rise in inverse proportion to its degree of variation.' Passage scored.
  • 6. MacLeay 1838:6, 'Indeed, if is obvious in every part of natural history, that the most important characters break down in certain species, and become at times perfectly worthless. Comparatively constant as is the structure of the teeth in the genera of Mammalia generally, we find in some groupes, such as the Edentata, or the genus Rhinoceros, that the dentition varies extensively in almost every species.' Darwin double scored 'Indeed . . . perfectly worthless.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 51
Notebook D
D 51
1838.08.29

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chance to be heredetary whether important or not,).1 p. 7. “ The Natural arrangement of animals themselves is the question in point.” Now what is natural arrangement,— affinities, what is that, amount of resemblance,— how can we estimate this amount, when value no scale of value of difference is or can be settled,—2 I believe affinity may be taken literally,, though how far we can ever discover the real relationship is doubtful.— not till much knowledge is elicited.— It will rest upon the discovery what characters VARY most easily:— those which do not vary being foundation for chief divisions.= p. 7.
«In» Some of cases the circular arrangement from fewness of forms— Cannot be discovered «un»till in «we ascenda to» subgenera & families, even in Cetionidæ «in the Cetoniadæ»,—3 when will ornithorhynchus come in circle?!!!



aascend] 'as' over 'des'
  • 1. MacLeay 1838:6−7, 'We truly make use of a process of tatonnement. We do not argue that such must be the groupe, because such and such are, in our opinion, good and distinct characters; but we say, such happens to be the character, of no matter what importance, which prevails throughout the groupe, and which serves in some degree to insulate it from other groupes. But it is evident that we must previously have arrived at the knowledge of the groupe; and this is effected by a close watching of the variation of affinity, and by considering the groupe to be complete only when the series of natural objects returns into itself.' Passage scored.
  • 2. MacLeay 1838:7, 'If even we were right in any such comparative estimate of the importance of organs in general economy, we ought not to forget that the true question under consideration is, the natural arrangement of the animals themselves; and that this is to be attained only by the expression of every affinity, and every analogy that can be detected.' Darwin underlined 'the natural arrangement' and commented: 'It may be asked what is meant by Natural arrangement— first step vague.— if it is said affinities of animal.— what does affinities mean?' At the bottom of the page he noted: 'Most resemblances— evidently disputed,—sum of difference[.] I conceive object is real relationship'.
  • 3. MacLeay 1838:7, 'Now, if we start from the principle that when a few species first agree in some particular character, they combine into a series that will return into itself, we shall probably imagine every such series, so forming a circle in practice, to be in theory the first natural assemblage of species. Yet this will be an incorrect mode of viewing the matter; for owing to the rarity of its species, the first known circular grouping of the species of Cryptodinus, for instance, is into sub-genera; whereas the first known circular grouping of the species of Cetoniidae is into certain sub-sections.' Darwin scored and added a '!' in the margin on 'Yet this ... sub-sections.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 52
Notebook D
D 52
1838.08.29

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p. 8— Anomalous structures, as in Hippotamus, solely owing to number of lost links. 1 if all species know they would be innumerable does not know any difference between permanent variety & species!! (given in note.)—2 Macleay met uses term genus when it is so many steps from a head, as subkingdom.— — evidently artificial, as interlopement of Marsupials will change all.— & so on no one will settle number of primary divisions.— Complains (p. 53) of M. Edwards, thinking any group good, though not circular, if characters can be established— clearly so.—3 NB. This paper worth referring to again.— According to my theory, every species in any sub-genus will be. descended from one stock, & that stock with other subgenera
  • 1. MacLeay 1838:8, 'Thus, when the naturalist talks of any anomalous structure, I understand merely that so many links, that is, so many groupes, of the great plan of creation are wanting, as would connect this singular being with some other and better known form. If I say that the Hippopotamus forms a stirps by itself, I only mean that it is the sole species of its stirps known; and that, speaking theoretically, four families are wanting, or rather twenty- four genera to connect it well with the other tribes of Pachyderms. It is of no consequence whether the families and genera supposed according to this theory to be wanting, have disappeared, or whether they have never been created. I merely suppose them to be wanting, in order that I may obtain something like a just notion of the relation which the Hippopotamus bears to the other Pachyderms.' Darwin scored: 'Thus, ... its stirps known'.
  • 2. MacLeay 1838:8, note, 'Some persons have imagined that I only assign five species to the lowest groupe in nature; but the above theory evidently proceeds on the assumption that if we knew all the species of the creation, their number would be infinite, or in other words, that they would pass into each other by infinitely small differences. This actually takes place sometimes in nature; and as yet I do not know any good distinction between a species and what is called “ a permanent variety.” ' Passage scored.
  • 3. MacLeay 1838:53, 'And indeed this very arrange- ment [of Crustacea] of Edwards is not natural, since he unfortunately conceives that every groupe he can invent, provided he can furnish it with a character, must be therefore a good one. As, on the contrary, the true definition of a complete natural groupe is, that it must be a series returning into itself, many of the groupes of Milne Edwards, when weighed by this scale, will be found wanting.' Passage scored. See Milne-Edwards 1834−40.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 37a
Notebook D: 53, 54, 55, 56, 61, 62, 63, 64 (excised pages)
D 53e
1838.08.29

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will come from. common stock.— all genera, common stock.— so that value can only be judged of in each «separate»a line of descent.— & here limits of varieties being constant. it would be exceedingl wrong to call,, one group genus & other subgenus,,— Propagation, best rule for genera, & so mount upwards.— «judged by analogy»— Consider all this

NB. How can local species as at Galapagos., be distinguished from temporal species as in two formations? by no way.?—b



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a«separate»] 's' on stub
bNB. . . . no way.?—] double scored, most of scoring on stub
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 37b
Notebook D: 53, 54, 55, 56, 61, 62, 63, 64 (excised pages)
D 54e
1838.08.29-1838.09.01 & 1838.09.01

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“Natura nihil agit frustra”, as Sir Thomas Browne says “is the only indisputable axiom in Philosophy Religio Medici. Vol II. Sir T Browne's Works p. 20

There are no grotesques in nature; not anything framed to fill up empty cantons, & unnecessary spaces” p 23. “ for Nature is the art of God” a 1

Septemb 1,. It has been argued Man first civilized. note add this in note. ⸮mere conjecture?— Australians.— Americansb. &c After Decandolles ideac




aThere are . . . God” —] '10' added brown crayon
bSeptemb . . . Americans] crossed pencil
cAfter Decandolles idea] added pencil
  • 1. Browne 1835−36, 2:20−23, Religio medici. [1642], 'Natura nihil agit frustra, is the only indisputable axiom in philosophy. There are no grotesques in nature; not any thing framed to fill up empty cantons, and unnecessary spaces.' (2:20). 'Now, nature is not at variance with art, nor art with nature; they being both the servants of his providence. Art is the perfection of nature. Were the world now as it was the sixth day, there were yet a chaos. Nature hath made one world, and art another. In brief, all things are artificial; for nature is the art of God.' (p. 23).
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 37c
Notebook D: 53, 54, 55, 56, 61, 62, 63, 64 (excised pages)
D 55e
1838.09.01

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Septemb. 1st. Macleay & Broderip were talking of some Crustacean, like Trilobite.1 (Polirus??) female blind & of quite different form from male with eyes!— (are not these differences in sex confined to annulosa?) Remarked that young of Cirrhipedes can move & see, parent fixed,— young of sponges move.—young of Cochineala insects move about & see, parent «(2)», female «(1)» fixedb & blind: — Macleay observed all these facts prove that perfection of organs have nothing to do with perfection of individual, though such relation seems common, but that perfection consists in being able to reproduce



'11' added to page brown crayon
ayoung of Cochineal] underlined brown crayon
bparent, female fixed] underlined brown crayon
  • 1. W. S. MacLeay and W. J. Broderip: personal communications, possibly at the Zoological Society.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 37d
Notebook D: 53, 54, 55, 56, 61, 62, 63, 64 (excised pages)
D 56e
1838.09.01

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Herea there is some error— Observed, nature does nothing in vain, therfore organ fitted to animals place in creation.— thus senses, especially sight connected with locomotion.— «Mem. Dr. Blackwell (Abercrmbies) comparison of sight to threads.—1» Hence the Pecten, which move imperfectly has eye-point, but Broderip added it has been stated that stationary Spondylusb has eye-points— Macleay then answered, because nature leaves vestiges of what she does— does not move per saltum— yet does nothing in vain!!



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aHere] 'H' over 'th'
bSpondylus] 'lus' on stub
  • 1. Sic Blacklock, see Abercrombie 1838:288−89, 'Smellie mentions of Dr. Blacklock, who lost his sight at the age of a few months, that, in his dreams, he had a distinct impression of a sense which he did not possess when awake. He described his impression by saying, that when awake there were three ways by which he could distinguish persons,—namely by hearing them speak, by feeling the head and shoulders, and by attending to the sound and manner of their breathing. In his dreams, however, he had a vivid impression of objects, in a manner distinct from any of these modes. He imagined that he was united to them, by a kind of distant contact, which was effected by threads or strings passing from their bodies to his own.' Passage scored. The following annotation at the bottom p. 289 may be relevant: 'have a distinct recollection of solving some geological puzzle in my sleep.— what it was I forget, which I am surprised at, for I have so clear an indistinct notion.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 57
Notebook D
D 57
1838.09.01 & 1838.09.02

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Fœtus of man undergoes metamorphosis., heart altered & umbilical cord,— Broderip alluded to Hunter's views on this subject.— Monstrosities, kind of determined by age of fœtus.—1

As Larvæ may be more perfect (as we use the word) than parent, so may species retrograde, but these facts are rare.—

2d Sept
Those animals which have many ABORTIVE organs, might be expected to have larvæ more perfect— this is applicable to young of Cochineal??
  • 1. Hunter 1837:45, 'each species seems to have its monstrous form originally impressed upon it'. This is the first of a series of references to correlated variation, a class of phenomena that Darwin soon grouped as 'Hunter's Law' (See D67 and D112). Through the remainder of Notebook D, the opening paragraphs of Hunter's 'An account of an extraordinary pheasant' from the Animal Economy (Hunter 1837:44−45) play a comparable role to key passages of Erasmus Darwin's Zoonomia in Notebook B. That is, they form a rich source of direct and indirect reference as Darwin seeks to understand the laws of generation. Hence, they are cited here in extenso. 'Every deviation from that original form and structure which gives the distinguishing character to the productions of Nature, may not improperly be called monstrous. According to this acceptation of the term, the variety of monsters will be almost infinitea; and, as far as my knowledge has extended, there is not a species of animal, nay, there is not a single part of an animal body, which is not subject to an extraordinary formation.
    Neither does this appear to be a matter of mere chance; for it may be observed that every species has a disposition to deviate from Nature in a manner peculiar to itself a. It is likewise worthy of remark, that each species of animals is disposed to have nearly the same sort of defects, and to have certain supernumerary parts of the same kind: yet every part is not alike disposed to take on a great variety of forms; but each part of each species seems to have its monstrous form originally impressed upon itb.' Richard Owen's notes follow:
    'a [p. 44] Mr. Hunter attempted, notwithstanding, to reduce this variety of monsters to definite groups, and left the following outline of a classification of monsters, in an explanatory introduction to the extensive series of those objects in his collection: “ 1. Monsters from preternatural situation of parts. “ 2. ———— addition, of parts. “ 3. ———— deficiency of parts. “ 4. ———— combined addition and deficiency of parts, as in hermaphroditical malformation.” . . .
    'a [P. 45] The value of the principle here enunciated will be appreciated, when it is stated that it is the basis of the latest and most elaborate work on the subject of monsters. It is claimed for Geoffroy St. Hilaire as the most important of his deductions in Teratology, and the chief point in which his system differs from, and is superior to, those of his predecessor. “ C'est de principes précisément inverses que mon père a pris sur point de départ; et c'est aussi, comme cela devait être à des résultats inverses qu'il est parvenu. Etablissant, par un grand nombre de recherches, que les monstres sont, comme les êtres dit normaux, soumis à des règles constantes, il est conduit à admettre que la méthode de classification que les naturalistes emploient pour les seconds, peut être appliquée avec succès aux premiers.” [Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1832−36, 1:99]
    'b [P. 45] In this principle Mr. Hunter is opposed to Geoffroy St. Hilaire, who attributed the production (l'ordonnée) of monstrosities to the operation of exterior or mechanical causes at some period of foetal development. Defective formation in parts of a foetus has indeed been produced by destroying a portion of the respiratory surface of an egg during incubation; but this result by no means affords adequate grounds for assigning as the sole cause of every malformation accidental adhesions between the foetus and its coverings. Mr. Hunter also made experiments with reference to monstrosities ... It is evident, however, from the expression in the concluding paragraph of the text, that he regarded the cause of congenital malformation as existing in the primordial germ.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 58
Notebook D
D 58
1838.09.02

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Is there some law in nature an animal may acquire organs, but lose them with more difficulty, «contradicted by abortive organs, but number of species with abortive organ of any kind few.— » hence become EXTINCT, & hence the IMPROVEMENTS of every type of organization. such law would explain every thing.— PURE HYPOTHESIS be careful.—

Argument for circularity of groups. When species of a group of species is made. father probably will be dead— hence there is no central radiating point, all united . (links in circle must be granted unequal, because fossil) Now what is group without centre but circle, two or three
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 59
Notebook D
D 59
1838.09.02

Editorial symbols


lines deep— with respect to Macleay's theory of analogies—1 be when it is considered the tree of life must be erect not pressed on paper, to study the corresponding points.—

The present geographical distribution of animals countenances the belief of their extreme antiquity (ie much intervening physical change).— distribution especially of Mammalia

As every organ is modified by use, every abortive organ must have been once changed.— what is abortive? when it does not perform that function which experience shows us it was for.— Most important law.— Penguins wing perhaps not abortive???. Apterix certainly.—a



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aAs every . . . certainly.—] double scored both margins
  • 1. See D50−52, also notes B129−1, C158−2 and MacLeay 1830a.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 60
Notebook D
D 60
1838.09.02

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Lyell's excellent view of geology, of each formation being merely a page torn out of a history, & the geologist being obliged to fill up the gaps.—1 is possibly the same with the Zoologist «philosopher», who has trace the structure of animals & plants.— he get merely a few pages.—

Hence (p. 59) looking at animal, if there be many others somewhat allied whether «like» parent stock, or not. Now wings for flight—therefore ostrich not.

The peculiar Malacca «Malacca» bears, are belong to same section with with those of India—
  • 1. The immediate reference appears to be Lyell 1838a:272, 'So, of a series of sedimentary formations, they are like volumes of history, in which each writer has recorded the annals of his own times, and then laid down the book, with the last written page uppermost, upon the volume in which the events of the era immediately preceding were commemorated. In this manner a lofty pile of chronicles is at length accumulated; and they are so arranged as to indicate, by their position alone, the order in which the events recorded in them have occurred.'This work was advertised as 'just published' in August 1838 (Publishers' Circular). See Origin, p. 310−11, 'For my part, following out Lyell's metaphor, I look at the natural geological record, as a history of the world imperfectly kept, and written in a changing dialect; of this history we possess the last volume alone, relating only to two or three countries. Of this volume, only here and there a short chapter has been preserved; and of each page, only here and there a few lines. Each word of the slowly-changing language, in which the history is supposed to be written, being more or less different in the interrupted succession of chapters, may represent the apparently abruptly changed forms of life, entombed in our consecutive, but widely separated, formations.' Darwin's joint linguistic- historiographic metaphor appears to be a combination of Lyellian metaphors (history of nature as book: from the Elements, Lyell 1838a; and geological processes as language: Principles 1830−33, 1:461−62; 1837, 2:352).
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 37e
Notebook D: 53, 54, 55, 56, 61, 62, 63, 64 (excised pages)
D 61e
1838.09.02 & 1838.09.03

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Waterhouse knows three species of Paradoxurus common to Van Diemen's land & Australia1

well developed tits «Mammæ» in male ourang-outang. other point of resemblance with man.—a

September 3d Magazine of Natural History. 1838
vol II p. 402. Mr Gould on Australian birds— all Eagles. of Australia characterized by wedge tails.—2 many of the hawks to are analogues to Bustard Europæan birds. also «do» p. 403. & 4043 vol II. do (p. 69 «71»). alludes to Eyton's discovery of different number of vertebræ in Irish & English Hare.—4 good case these hares compared to North American hares. Many species, separated by Mountains. & & &c.—  19 b



aWaterhouse . . . man.—] crossed pencil
b19] added in brown crayon to ‘September 3d . . . Mountains. & & &c.—’
  • 1. G. R. Waterhouse: personal communication.
  • 2. Gould 1838b:402, 'Of the genus Aquila only one species has as yet been discovered, viz., the Aquila fucosa of Cuvier, which doubtless represents in Australia the Golden Eagle of Europe, from which it may be readily distinguished by its more slender contour, and by its lengthened and wedge-shaped tail.'
  • 3. Gould 1838b:403, 'Of the genus Falco, the Peregrinus is replaced by a species most nearly allied to, and hitherto considered identical with that bird: the experienced eye of the ornithologist will, however, readily distinguish an Australian specimen when placed among others from various parts of the globe, so that there will be but little impropriety in assigning to it a separate specific name.' Passage scored ('Of . . . distinguish'). 'The Hobby, so familiar as a European bird, is represented by the Falcon, for which I now propose the specific name of rufiventer, as I believe it to be undescribed.' Passage scored. 'The Cerchnis cenchroides (Falco cenchroides of Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield,) exhibits a beautiful analogy with the Common Kestril of our island, but although nearly allied possesses several important and permanent differences.' Passage scored.
  • 4. W. Thompson 1839a: 71 [No. 7, Sept. 1838], 'On looking to their [Lepus Hibernicus and L. timidus] osteology, some slight differences are observable in the head; the comparatively more horizontal direction of the lumbar vertebra in the Irish hare is conspicuous, and likewise the relative shortness of its tail, which, as first recorded by Mr. Eyton [1838b], contains three vertebrae less than that of the English species, thirteen only being possessed by the former, and sixteen by the latter animal.' Passage scored. This paper is a notice of W. Thompson 1838d, which Darwin had read; see B7, note 2 and E184.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 37f
Notebook D: 53, 54, 55, 56, 61, 62, 63, 64 (excised pages)
D 62e
1838.09.03-1838.09.07

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do. p. 69. A Dr Macdonald believes the Quaternary arrangement & not the Quinary.—1 any one may believe anything in such rigmaroles about analogies & number

L'Institut p. 275. (1838) M. Blainville has written paper to show Stonesfield Didelphis not Didelphis2 «Answered satisfactorily by. Valenciennes.3»

The change from caterpillar to butterfly— is not more wonderful than the body of a man undergoing a constant round,—each particle is placed in place of last by the ordering of the nerves, but in different parts according to age of individuals— (see Mammæ of Women) in different parts when age



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  • 1. Macdonald 1839:69 [No. 7, Sept. 1838], 'The author had scarcely time to do justice to himself or subject, and we have still less in our limited space. He stated he thought zoologists attended too little to anatomy, those especially who gave themselves to tracing analogies throughout the scale of animated nature. He avowed himself an advocate for the quaternary not the quinquennary grouping of the series.' The author goes on to propose anatomical analogies between fishes and insects. Passage scored in extenso.
  • 2. Blainville 1838d:275, 'Les deux seuls fragments fossiles de Stonefield attribués au genre Didelphis de la' classe des Mammifères n'ont aucun des caractères des animaux de ce genre, et ne doivent certainement pas y être rangés.'
  • 3. Valenciennes 1838a:297, 'M. Valenciennes lit les observations sur les mâchoires fossiles découvertes dans les couches de Stonefield, et attribuées par M. Cuvier aux Mammifères. M. de Blainville . . . n'avait eu sous les yeux d'autres pièces que des dessins. M. Valenciennes a été plus heureux: M. Buckland lui a fait voir . . . deux mâchoires d'animaux fossiles des couches de Stonefield. La comparaison qu'il a faite . . . lui a permis d'établir avec certitude que ces débris appartiennent réellement à des animaux de la classe des Mammifères, et qu'ils doivent former un nouveau genre appartenant à l'ordre des Marsupiaux.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 37g
Notebook D: 53, 54, 55, 56, 61, 62, 63, 64 (excised pages)
D 63e
1838.09.03-1838.09.07

Editorial symbols


changes caterpillar to Butterfly.—

When two Varieties of dogs cross, Erasmus says1 it look lik[e]



top 2cm extant
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  • 1. Erasmus Alvey Darwin: personal communication
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 37h
Notebook D: 53, 54, 55, 56, 61, 62, 63, 64 (excised pages)
D 64e
1838.09.03-1838.09.07

Editorial symbols


Institut. 1837. P. 351. Paradoxurus Phillippensis. Philippines1

19 a




top 2cm extant
a19] added brown crayon
  • 1. Jourdan 1837:351.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 65
Notebook D
D 65
1838.09.03-1838.09.07 & 1838.09.07

Editorial symbols


Man have varies the range— Argue the case of Probability. has Creator made rat for Ascension.— The Galapagos mouse probably transported like the New Zealand one— It should be observed with what facility mice attach themselves to man.

Sept 7th. — I was struck looking at the Indian cattle with Bump. together with Bison,1 at some resemblance as if the “ variation in one, was analogous to specific character of other species in genus.” — Is there any law of this. Do any varieties of sheep «evidently artificial» approach



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  • 1. At the Zoological Society Gardens.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 66
Notebook D
D 66
1838.09.07

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in character to goats.— or dogs to foxes. (yes Australian dog) or donkeys to Zebras.— «Mr Herberts variety of horse, dun-coloured with stripe approaches to ass.1» or fowls to the several aboriginal species «or ducks» (here argue if it be said domestic fowls are descended from several stock, then species are fertile; as long as opponents will «are» not «able to» tie themselves down, they can find loopholes) “ It is well worthy of examination whether variations are produced only in those character which are seen to vary among be different in species of same genus.” Law of monstrosity not prospective, but retrospective as showing
  • 1. Herbert 1837:339−40, 'I feel satisified that the fox and the dog are of one origin, and suspect the wolf and jackall to be of the same; nor could I ever contemplate the black line down the back of a dun pony without entertaining a suspicion that the horse, unknown in a wild state except where it has escaped from domesticity, may be a magnificent improvement of the wild ass in the very earliest age of the world: . . .' Darwin underlined 'black line down the back of a dun pony' and noted 'instance of my law of variations agreeing other species of genus'.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 67
Notebook D
D 67
1838.09.07

Editorial symbols


what organs are little fixed— (also Hunters law of monstrosity with regard to age of fœtus. distinct consideration)1 Now in different SPECIES of genus Sus. do vertebræ vary? «See Cuvier Ossemens Fossiles2»

Although no new fact be elicited by these speculation even if partly true they are of the greatest service, towards the end of science. namely prediction.— till facts are grouped. & called. there can be no prediction.— The only advantage of discovering laws is to foretell what will happen & toa see bearing of scattered facts..—



awill happen & to] 't' over 's'
  • 1. Hunter 1837:45, see D57, note 1.
  • 2. See G. Cuvier 1821−24, 2:124. Cuvier surveys the osteology of the extant 'cochon'; on p. 124 he describes the vertebrae, but gives no mention of variation. He devotes two pages to 'Des os fossiles de cochons', and barely mentions vertebrae.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 68
Notebook D
D 68
1838.09.07

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What takes place in the formation of a bud— the very same must take place in copulation— (Man & woman separate parts of same plants)— now in some Polypi we see young bud changing into ovules.—

Captain Grants. Himalaya. shells (see Paper in Geolog Transacts) same appearance with Secondary Species distinct— but close.—1 Mem. Von Buch on Cordillera fossils same remark.2 ⸮was there formerly one great sea, & two Polar Continents Marsupial. Edentata.— Pachydermata &c &c—
  • 1. Grant 1840:297 [read 22 February 1837], 'In its mineralogical character and general appearance, this formation [upper secondary] greatly resembles the English lias; but its fossils have been found, after a careful examination by Mr. James Sowerby, to assimilate very closely to those of the oolitic beds; and a very few belonging to the green sand.'
  • 2. Buch 1838:270, 'La majeure partie consiste en une espèce du genre Pecten'.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 69
Notebook D
D 69
1838.09.07

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It is important with respect to extinction of species, the capability of only small amount of change at any one time

Seeing what Von Buch (Humboldt). G. St. Hilaire, & Lamarck have written I pretend to no originality of idea—1 (though I arrived at them quite independently & have used them since) the line of proof & reducing fact to law only merit if merit there be in following work.—

The history of Medicine, the extraordinary effects of different Medicines on organs, leads one to suspect any amount of change from eating different kinds of food: grazing animals who eat every species new.—
  • 1. See Buch 1836, referred to at B156. Presumably Darwin is referring to Humboldt's broad contributions to natural history, e.g. Humboldt and Bonpland 1819−29. However, by placing Humboldt in parentheses after von Buch, he may have been referring to Humboldt 1817, which is cited in Buch 1836. See E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1830 and Lamarck 1830.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 70
Notebook D
D 70
1838.09.08

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Sept. 8'. A Golden Pippen or Ribston do producing occasionally (as Fox says)1 same fruit trees is analogous to some hybrids breedings— there is tendency to reproduce in each case, but something prevents the completion.— Say my Grandfathers expression of generat. being highest end of organization good expression but does not include so many facts as mine 2
  • 1. W. D. Fox: personal communication. See B83, 'Fox tells me, that beyond all doubt seeds of Ribston Pippin, produce Ribstone Pippins, & Golden Pippen, goldens—'
  • 2. Erasmus Darwin 1794−96, 1:514. See B1−2, 'This appears highest office in organization (especially in lower animals, where mind, & therefore relation to other life has not come into play)− See Zoonomia arguements . . .' Also see D19, notes 1 and 2.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 71
Notebook D
D 71
1838.09.08

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The facts about half breed animals being wilder than parents is very curious as pointing out difference between acquired & heredetary tameness.—1

In comparing my theory with any other. it should be observed not what comparative difficulties (as long as not overwhelming) What comparative solutions & linking of facts—2

Savages over whole world. (Major I Mitchell p. 244. vol I) spit & throw dust3

according to my theory of generation (p. 175) if4
  • 1. See B136 and C165.
  • 2. See Herschel 1831 and Whewell 1837 on 'consilience of inductions' as a test of a scientific theory's validity.
  • 3. T. L. Mitchell 1838, 1:243−44.
  • 4. This passage indicates that Darwin's summary 'Proved facts relating to Generation' (D176−179, 174− 175) was written before 8 Sept. 1838. See discussion of chronology in the introduction to Notebook D.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 72
Notebook D
D 72
1838.09.08

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8th Sept
Yarrell told me he had just heard of Black game & Ptarmigan having crossed in wild state— & the English & Some African dove.—1

The extinction of the S. American quadrupeds is difficulty on any theory— without God is supposed to create & destroy without rule— But what does he in this world without rule? The destruction of the great Mammals over whole world shows there is rule.— S. America & Australia appear to have suffered most with respect to extinction of larger forms.—

From observing way the Marsupials of Australia have branched out into orders one is strongly tempted to believe, one or two were landed



aS. America &] 'S' over 'A'
  • 1. William Yarrell: personal communication.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 38a
Notebook D: 73, 74, 87, 88, 89, 90 (excised pages)
D 73e
1838.09.08

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as at present in New Ireland & continent since grown.— This will explain. S. American case & Didelphis being Mundine form., & the less developement of Marsupials in S. America. from presence of Edentata— Edentata & Marsupials have been almost destroyed wherever other animals existed.—a

Athenæum 1838. p. 654. Reason given for supposing Tetrao media orb Rakkelhan is hybrid (produced commonly in Nature. both in Sweden & anciently in Britain) between hen Caperailkie & cock Black-cock.—1 (Curious the readiness with which this genus becomes crossed. ⸮is red game an hybrid?—c



aas at ... existed.—] crossed pencil
bmedia or] added pencil, 'm' on stub
cAthenæum ... an hybrid?—] '17 ' added brown crayon
  • 1. Charlton 1838:654, 'Dr. Charlton exhibited a specimen of Tetrao Rakkelhan, of Temminck, and read a short notice, to prove that this bird, though described as a distinct species, by so great an authority as Temminck, was in fact nothing but a hybrid, between the hen capercailzie and blackcock. This he acknowledged to be an old theory, but it was also, held by the greatest living naturalist of Sweden, Prof. Nillson [sic Nilsson], of Lund. Dr. Charlton brought forward in favour of his opinion the fact, that the female of this bird has never yet been described or discovered, and yet that every year males were transmitted to England. Mr. Tunstall, on the authority of some old Scottish gentleman, had stated, that the hybrid bird as well as the capercailzie was formerly met with in Scotland. This Dr. Charlton considered as an argument in favour of its being a hybrid, for were it otherwise, it would in all probability, being a much smaller bird, have survived the extirpation of the capercailzie.' See Natural Selection: 434 (cross between Tetrao urogallus Capercailzie and Lygurus [sic] tetrix Black Grouse) and p. 436, n. 16.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 38b
Notebook D: 73, 74, 87, 88, 89, 90 (excised pages)
D 74e
1838.09.08

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When I show that island would have no plants were it not for seeds being floated about.— I must state that. the p mechanism by which seeds are adapted for long transportation, seems «?» to imply knowledge of whole world— if so doubtless «part of» system of great harmony.1
The peculiar character of St. Helena.—2 contrast with otaheite in relation «See Gaudichauds Volume on the Botany of the Pacific.—3» to nearest continent.— With respect to ancient geography of Atlantic Tristan D'Acunha ditto, Juan Fernandez do





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  • 1. Compare Darwin's grey-ink addition to C184, which must have been written within days of D74: 'Webb &. Berthelot. must be studied on Canary islands— Endeavour to find out whether African forms. (anyhow not Australian) on Peaks. Did Creator make all new yet forms like neighbouring Continent. This fact speaks volumes. ... my theory explains this. but no other will.— St Helena, (& flora of Galapagos?) same condition. Keeling Isd «shows where proper dampness seeds can arrive quick enough»'. Reading D74 and the grey-ink additions to C184 together both the ironic tone of 'system of great harmony'and the familiar theme of the absurdity of creationism become evident.
  • 2. See B157 and B222 (also B173 and B193).
  • 3. Gaudichaud 1826−30.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 75
Notebook D
D 75
1838.09.08

Editorial symbols


Mitchell. Australia Vol I. p. 306 “ The crows were amazingly bold, always accompanying us from camp to camp; it was absolutely necessary to watch our meat, while in kettles on the fire, & on one occasion, not withstanding our vigilance a piece of pork 3 lb was taken from a boiling pot, & carried off by one of these birds” 1 Case of bird of different family. having very same habits in some respects as this Caracara.—
  • 1. T. L. Mitchell 1838, 1:306.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 76
Notebook D
D 76
1838.09.09

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Sept. 9th. It is worthy of observation that in insects where one of the sexes is little developed, it is always female which approaches in character to the larva, or less developed state.— the female & young of all birds resemble each other in plumage «(that is where the female differs from the male?)».— children & women = “ women recognized inferior intellectually” = Opposed to these facts are effects of castration on males & of age or castration on females.—

[77e-84e not located]



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Cambridge University Library DAR 69: A5a
Notebook D: 85-86 (excised page)
D 85e
1838.09.09-1838.09.11

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hen freely.— here we have beautiful proof of the breeding in & in (like «courage in dogs1» EFFEMINATE men),— if carried much further, if by the process this were possible, the organs doubtless would shrivel up.— Yet odd they should have so much sexual character as they havea This character of not having sexual plumageb is very common by hybrids, that are infertile.— thus the common. pheasant & fowl when crossed never even lay eggs. & the men2 cannot «hardly» tell any sex byc appearance.— The silver & common pheasantd crossed, has a cock (infertile) with the breast of



'17' added to page brown crayon.
aYet odd . . . they have] added pencil
bsexual plumage] underlined pencil
chen freely . . . sex by] crossed pencil
dsilver & common pheasant] underlined pencil
  • 1. See C120, 'Ld Orfords had breed of grey hounds fleetest in England lost courage.'
  • 2. Workers in the Zoological Society Gardens. From this point (and perhaps parts of the missing D77−85) through D94, Darwin records his observations and reflections at the Zoological Society Gardens. These observa- tions, which bear principally on generation, are paralleled by those on behaviour in M137−141.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 69: A5b
Notebook D: 85-86 (excised page)
D 86e
1838.09.09-1838.09.11

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which is like common pheasant & back like silver.— But the hen hybrid of this bird, has long tail figure, & some degree of whiteness like a Male.— Thus castration, hybridity, & breeding in & in tend to produce same effects.—

[May it be said, that breeding in & in tends to produce unhealthiness,— «or» to perpetuate some organic difference.— it may be so, but this assumption as long as animals are healthy



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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 38c
Notebook D: 73, 74, 87, 88, 89, 90 (excised pages)
D 87e
1838.09.09-1838.09.11

Editorial symbols


which is often the case, & why should organic affections always influence the sexual organs alone.—a


It is singular pheasant & fowl being so totally infertile whereas animals further apart have bred inter se.—

These hybrids are very wildb & take very little in disposition after their «pheasant» parents.—1 (There are some 3/4 birds «of», which I think there must be some mistake in their origin)  17 c

Saw cross between Penguin Duck «from Bombay» & Canada Goose.— Former strange mishaped bird— looks very artificial breed— but Mr Miller says2 that breeds larger numbers, & rears and



awhich . . . alone.—] crossed pencil
bwild] underlined pencil
c17] added in brown crayon to ‘It is ... their origin)’
dSaw cross . . . rears an] double scored brown crayon
first single rule line crossed
  • 1. See Natural Selection: 457, 'The Pheasant prepon-derates over the fowl in those hybrids which I have seen.' See also Variation 2:67−68.
  • 2. Alexander Miller.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 38d
Notebook D: 73, 74, 87, 88, 89, 90 (excised pages)
D 88e
1838.09.09-1838.09.11

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unusual number out of any one nest. even more than common duck— Male Penguin was crossed with hen Canadian offspring, I should say in every respect most like Penguin duck.— which is strange anomaly in Yarrells law.—a it probably is explained by the vigour of their propagating powers. (as if they were a good species, or local variety, & not effect of breeding in & in like our pidgeons)
The male of every animal certainly seems chiefly to impress the young most with its form & dispositionb




aMale Penguin . . . law.—] double scored brown crayon
bThe male . . . & disposition] crossed pencil
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 38e
Notebook D: 73, 74, 87, 88, 89, 90 (excised pages)
D 89e
1838.09.09-1838.09.11

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Saw three young ducks, like each other,— (& not very like either either wild or Pintail duck) from which they were descended— they descend from 1/2 pintail into «by» duck, into pintail.— Of these there were four, two like each other & two dark-coloured & different.— —the former were the parents of the three little ones.—a 1

Keeper said in two crosses «twice made» between terrier & hairless dogs of Africa,— some puppies hairless. some in patches, & some hairy— the former preponderated which seems owing «determined» by the sex Individual instances trouble Yarrels law. chief trust must be in general knowledge of breeders, where their interest is concernedb.



page excised and cut in half at 'Keeper said'
aSaw three . . . little ones.—] '17' added brown crayon
bKeeper said . . . is concerned] '16' added brown crayon
  • 1. See Natural Selection: 433, n. 1.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 38f
Notebook D: 73, 74, 87, 88, 89, 90 (excised pages)
D 90e
1838.09.09-1838.09.11

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Same man had crossed Jackal & dog— (offspring did not go to heat. but parts swelled, though no fluid came from them.— showing how gradually every thing «change» is effected)— the one in garden is from bitch dog do father dog. & hence general appearance of face & tail somewhat like dog— though it has full share of Jackall shape of body.— disposition wild, & fearful. though not so much as in Jackall.— In case where Jackall was father resemblance much nearer to Jackall.—



page excised and cut in half, crossed pencil
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 91
Notebook D
D 91
1838.09.09-1838.09.11

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This Keeper has seen when sickly tigers have first come over, insects somewhat like «between» lice & fleas. sticking on them, but never in an animal, that had long been in confinement— is this effect of climate, or state in which they are kept?—


}
Is there any mistake about Yarrell's law, is it local (not artificial variation) which impresses offspring most.— «& not time» thinking of the Penguin duck & Herberts law of ideosyncrasya




a Is there . . . ideosyncracy] brace right margin, and arrow to 92
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 92
Notebook D
D 92
1838.09.09-1838.09.11

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I have hitherto thought that a small difference of any kind, if very firmly fixed from long time, made no difference what its kind was.— but if it were opposed to the difference in other sex, it would be much more difficult to propagate— now «as» if one bird had very bright red breast & other very bright blue, it might be harder to tr for
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 93
Notebook D
D 93
1838.09.09-1838.09.11

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both parents to transmit there peculiarities; that if one had a both had mottled breasts, when of a sort that would allow the offspring to have some different kind of mottle, each feather partaking of character of other.— so the most aquatic & most terrestrial species, might be harder to cross than two less opposed in habits, though externally similar.— this however is a sophism for
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 94
Notebook D
D 94
1838.09.09-1838.09.11

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their brain or stomach would be different.— Or if one species left its type in having very long legs, & another in having very long tail, & other in having very short tail.— I can readily see that two first might cross easier than two last.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 84.2: 34
Birds-33 Note, Notebook D: 95-96 (excised page)
D 95e
1836.09.11

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Sept. 11.
Na
Mr. Blyth,1 at Zoolog. Meeting stated, that Green-finch, all linnets red-pole, goldfinch, hawfinch— in nursling plumage resembled that of Cross-Beak—2 In lark if I understand right, all species have same character which is mottled, & not like any existing species— [In two herons, both plumage of both (nursling) quite similar.— one species retained this character in adult stage, other alters entirely In common sparrow young & female similar plumage.— in tree sparrow, (if I understand rightly) young cock &  12



'12' added to page brown crayon
aN] added blue crayon

  • 1. Edward Blyth, 1810-1873.
  • 2. Blyth 1838b: 115, 'Mr. Blyth made some remarks on the plumage and progressive changes of the Crossbills, stating that, contrary to what has generally been asserted, neither the red nor saffron-tinted garb is indicative of any particular age. ... 'He also exhibited a Linnet killed during the height of the breeding season, when the crown and breast of that species are ordinarily bright crimson, in which those parts were of the same hue as in many Crossbills; and observed that the same variations were noticeable in the genera Corythraix and Erythrospiza.' The remainder of Blyth's information in D95−96 is not reported in the 11 September Proceedings and, thus, reflects informal discussion at the meeting. Note that the lark was also discussed in the preceding paper (Yarrell's comments on Sykes 1838c. Yarrell 1830−31:27.).
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Cambridge University Library DAR 84.2: 34
Birds-33 Note, Notebook D: 95-96 (excised page)
D 96e
1836.09.11

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hen, all nearly similar.— in blackbird group young like some of the species— (⸮do these facts indicate that the change is effected through the male??)— Yarrell 1observed that female of some water birds, (as Phalarope) assume for breeding a more brilliant plumage than male.—2«My case of Caracara. N. Zelandiæ.—3» Mr Blyth stated «that there are» two ducks, which have pretty close repesentative species in England & N. America.— the teal which some authorsa b

[97e-98e not located]





aYarrell observed . . . some authors] crossed pencil
bMr Blyth . . . some authors] crossed pencil

  • 1. William Yarrell, 1784-1856.
  • 2. See Yarrell 1843, 3:46, 'The females of this species [the Grey Phalarope] appear to assume more perfect colours in the breeding-season, and to retain them longer than the males.'
  • 3. Caracara N. Zelandiæ refers to Milvago leucurus (Birds: 15−18) among whose synonyms are Polyborus Novæ Zelandiæ: 'The plumage in the two sexes of this species differs in a manner unusual in the family to which it belongs. The description given in all systematic works is applicable, as I ascertained by dissection, only to the old females; namely, back and breast black, with the feathers of the neck having a white central mark following the shaft, . . . male of smaller size than female: dark brown; with tail, pointed feathers of shoulders and base of primaries, pale rusty brown. On the breast, that part of each feather which is nearly white in the female, is pale brown: ... As may be inferred from this description, the female is a much more beautiful bird than the male, and all the tints, both of the dark and pale colours, are much more strongly pronounced. From this circumstance, it was long before I would believe that the sexes were as here described. But the Spaniards . . . constantly assured me that the small birds with gray legs were the males . . .' (p. 16). See D114, note 2.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 99
Notebook D
D 99
1838.09.13

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September 13th The passion of the doe to the victorious stag. who rubs the skin off horns to fight— is analogous to the love of woman (as Mitchell remarks seen in savages) to brave men.—1 Effect of castration horns drop off., replaced by hairy ones. which never «dry up &» peel off their skin (not being wanted for war) & hence never fall off. Curious the rapidity of the change in 5 or 6 weeks after castration, fresh horns begin to grow.—

Mr Yarrell says the «male» Axis of India, breeds at times when horns not perfect— (is not this so in S. America with C. Campestris) refer to my notes)2 & Mr Yarrell supposes this a consequence of the female breeding all the year round. ask Colonel Sykes.—
  • 1. T. L. Mitchell 1838, 1:304, '. . . the possession of [the women] . . . appears to be associated with all their ideas of fighting; while, on the other hand, the gins [women] have it in their power on such occasions to evince that universal characteristic of the fair, a partiality for the brave. Thus it is, that after a battle, they do not always follow the fugitives from the field, but not infrequently go over, as a matter of course, to the victors, even with young children on their backs; and thus it was, probably, after we had made the lower tribes sensible of our superiority, that the three gins followed our party, beseeching us to take them with us.' See D113, note 2.
  • 2. Cervus campestris. Darwin's Beagle zoology notes (DAR 30.2: MS p. 196) and his comments in Mammalia on this species speaks indirectly to the question: 'This specimen was killed at Maldonado, in the middle of June; another specimen was killed at Bahia Blanca, ... in the month of October, with the hairy skin on the horns: there were others, however, whose horns were free from skin. At this time of the year, many of the does had just kidded. I was informed, by the Spaniards, that this deer sheds its horns every year.' (Mammalia:30.)
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 100
Notebook D
D 100
1838.09.13

Editorial symbols


Even our domesticated cattle have tendency to breed at particular times.

Mr Yarrell has old book 1765? Treatise on Domestic Pidgeon,1 in which it appears that all the bird varieties «,now know» were then pr existing.— he has also some very fine recent drawing «of prize pidgeons» in 1834— now this would be most curious to show that in sixty years— (how many generations) the strangest peculiarities have been kept perfect— also to trace the laws of change in this time.— the impossibility of discovering their origin.— I see only some «but very strange races» of them have the forked black mark of the Rock Pidgeon,—2 several have a group



page crossed pencil
  • 1. Moore 1765. See St. Helena Model Notebook (Down House), 'Mr Yarrell 1763 [over 1780], has book history of Pidgeon. Treatise on Domestic Pidgeons—very curious in comparison for time,— Mr [Yarrell] has comparison' (p. 47). D100 shows Darwin's early and excited interest in pigeons as a model animal for the study of transmutation—an interest that comes to fruition in the Origin and Variation. QE4 records a further early step in this direction: 'Keep. Tumbling pigeons. cross them with other breed.—' Darwin repays this promissory note with experimental studies on pigeon variation and embryology in the 1850s, whilst writing Natural Selection.
  • 2. See St. Helena Model Notebook (Down House), 'Has rock Pidgeon pouter's specks on shoulder, pouters have specks. Have any new varieties of Pidgeons been established? There must be laws of variation chance would never «produce» «feathers or make breed»' (p. 48). See also Variation 1:183, 'We now come to the best known rock-pigeon, the Columba livia, which is often designated in Europe pre-eminently as the Rock-pigeon, and which naturalists believe to be the parent of all the domesticated breeds. This bird agrees in every essential character with the breeds which have been only slightly modified. It differs from all other species in being of a slate-blue colour, with two black bars on the wings, and with the croup (or loins) white.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 39a
Notebook D: 101, 102, 133, 134, 135, 136 (excised pages)
D 101e
1838.09.13

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of white speckles on elbow joint— in Bewick1 drawing the the rock Pidgeon has not: now how many wild pidgeons have spangles on this part: this will be well worth working out.— Study Temminks work on Pidgeons—,2 & see whether feathered legs.— «Carruncles on beak & in Muscovy duck» crested feather, pouters, fan tails are found in any colours of plumage &c &c «Pouting pidgeon exaggeration of cooing.—» & compare them with all the varieties.—3 Habits of rock pidgeon. (I suspect Pennant has described them4)— [Study horns of wild cattle.— plumage of fowls— long ears of rabbits. & long fur.— feathers on legs of Ptarmigan & in Bantam.— ] [In the Pidgeons, trace the washing out of the forked band, like in plumage of ducks.—



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  • 1. Bewick 1794−1804, 1:267. 'The Wild Pigeon'.
  • 2. Temminck 1813−15.
  • 3. Temminck 1813−15, 1:43. See Darwin's abstract (DAR 71:6; probable date 1840s): 'Columba australis Lath. legs partially feathered: other species with car-runcles at base of bill & others naked skin round eyes— [NB domestic vars. analogous these species]>'
  • 4. Pennant 1773:28, 'Swift and distant flight, walking pace. Plaintive note, or cooing, peculiar to the order. The male inflates or swells up its breast in courtship. Female, lays but two eggs at a time. Male and female sit alternately; and feed their young, ejecting the meat out of their stomachs into the mouths of the nestlings. Granivorous, seminivorous. The nest simple, in trees, or holes of rocks, or walls.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 39b
Notebook D: 101, 102, 133, 134, 135, 136 (excised pages)
D 102e
1836.09.13

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Mr Yarrell says1 in very close species, of birds, habits when well watched always very different.— the two redpoles can hardly be told apart, so that after differences were pointed out Selby confounded them,2 yet can readily be told by incubation & other peculiarities.— (Mem.— Goulds Willow Wren.—3) (Goulds story of Water-Wagtails mistake both species scattered over Europe)— The habits of some «same» North American & Europæan birds «slight» different— Barn Owl thein the former place breeds in flags «thick vegetation» in swamps— (owing to barns, perhaps, not being left open to them,— . In singing birds, part instinctive & part acquired,— thus Yarrel has Lark & Nightingale which both sing their own songs, though imperfectly.— Male birds always second their songs, the ++a



'7' added to page brown crayon
athe ++] '+ +' on stub
  • 1. D102−103 is based on conversation with William Yarrell, interspersed with information from John Gould.
  • 2. P. J. Selby.
  • 3. Recurs to theme of B213, C125, C177 and C241.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 84.2: 35
Birds-34 Note, Notebook D: 103-104 (excised page)
D 103e
1838.09.13

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Cervus Campestris spotted white when a fawn compare with fallow? deer. & Moschus &c & — like young blackbirds

Dr Bachman12 told me that 1/2 Muscovy & common duck were often caught wild off coast of America.— showing hybrids can fare for themselves.||a

++first year.— The bird fanciers match their birds to see which will sing longest, & they in evident rivalry sing against each other, till it has been known one has killed itself.—b 3Q c

Sir. J. Sebright— has almost lost his Owl-Pidgeons from infertility,—4
Yarrell5 says in such case they exchange birds with some other fancier, thus getting fresh blood, without fresh feather, & consequent trouble in obliterating the fresh feather, by crossing—d12 e



aCervus . . . themselves||] crossed pencil
b+ + first year . . . killed itself.—] passage continues from 102 'In singing . . . songs, the ++'
cQ] added pencil in circle
dSir. J. Sebright6 . . . by crossing—] crossed pencil
e12] added brown crayon

  • 1. John Bachman, 1790-1874.
  • 2. John Bachman: personal communication.
  • 3. See Stanley, 1835 1:72, 'The bird-fanciers in London, who are in the habit of increasing the singing powers of birds to the utmost, by training them by high feeding, hot temperature of the rooms in which they are kept, and forced moutling, will often match one favourite Goldfinch against another. They are put in small cages, with wooden backs, and placed near to, but so they cannot see, each other: they will then raise their shrill voices, and continue their vocal contest till one frequently drops off its perch, perfectly exhausted, and dies on the spot.'
  • 4. See C120 and D85.
  • 5. William Yarrell, 1784-1856.
  • 6. John Saunders Sebright (Sir John Sebright), 1767-1846.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 84.2: 35
Birds-34 Note, Notebook D: 103-104 (excised page)
D 104e
1838.09.13

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It seems from Lib. of Useful. Knowledge that sheep originally. black.1 & Yarrell2thinks the occasional production of black lambs is owing to old story return.— The Revd R. Jones told me precisely same story about some Southern «see p. 43 supra» breed of cattle with white heads; which years afterwards occasionally went back—3 (Effect of imagination on mother. white peeled rods mentioned in old Testament placed before sheep—4 it has been thought that silver Pheasants about a house made other pheasants have white feathers).—5

It certainly appears in domesticated animals, that the amount of variation is soon reached— as in pidgeons no new races.—6



page crossed pencil

  • 1. Youatt 1837:17−18, 'This is the first intelligence which the Scriptures afford of the kind of sheep in these early times, or at least of those of which these flocks were composed: they were of one uniform colour, brown or dingy black, and the exceptions were accidental and of few in number. From the experiment or policy of Jacob, sheep of a new colour arose: . . . and the better appearance of the fleece . . . would lead to a selection from those that had the most white about them, until at length the fleece was purely white.' Darwin scored 'and the better . . . purely white.'
  • 2. William Yarrell, 1784-1856.
  • 3. See D43.
  • 4. Genesis 30:37−39, 'and Jacob took him rods of green poplar and of the hazel and chestnut tree; and pilled white strakes in them, and made the white appear which was in the rods. And he set the rods which he had pilled before the flocks in the gutters in the watering troughs when the flocks came to drink, that they should conceive when they came to drink. And the flocks conceived before the rods, and brought forth cattle ringstraked, speckled, and spotted.'
  • 5. See C68: 'Mr Yarrell says, that some birds or animals are placed in white rooms to give tinge to offspring.'
  • 6. See D100, but also note Lyell's emphasis on the limits of variation under domestication (Lyell 1837, 2:407−20). 'The alteration of the habits of species has reached a point beyond which no ulterior modification is possible, however indefinite the lapse of ages during which the new circumstances operate. (2:408).' Darwin commented: 'assumption'.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 40a
Notebook D: 105, 106, 151, 152, 159, 160 (excised pages)
D 105e
1838.09.13

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In Scandinavia besides the Rakhekna, before mentioned1 between Capercailzie & Black Cock.— The latter has crossed with the Ptarmigan. subalpina in wild state.— Neilson has given figure of it.—a 2 In England no doubt the cross between Pheasant & Black game is owing to their rarity., a single female in wood with Pheasants would sure to be trod,3 & in many parts of Scandinavia these birds are very far from common.— Under this predicament, probably, alone would species cross in wild state.— Is English red Grouse. a cross between Black Game. &, the subalpina of Sweden, (which in summer dress somewhat resembles Red Grouse) it may be so— but very improbably, for it can hardly beb



aIn Scandinavia . . . of it.—] '17' added brown crayon
bIn England . . . hardly be] crossed pencil
  • 1. Refers to mention of Tetrao Rakelhan in D73.
  • 2. Nilsson 1817−21, 1:300−5 discusses Tetrao tetrix, Black grouse, Blackcock with varieties and hybrids including Rackelhane. No figures of ptarmigan are given. Nilsson 1835, 2:42−60 describes Capercaillie, Tetrao Urogallus; the Black-Grouse (Black-cock), Tetrao tetrix; Ptarmigan, Lagopus alpina, and hybrids the Rackelhane, Tetrao hybridus Urogalloides, and Tetrao hybridus Lagopoides. See Natural Selection: 436, nn. 18−19.
  • 3. Copulated with.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 40b
Notebook D: 105, 106, 151, 152, 159, 160 (excised pages)
D 106e
1838.09.13

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thought that the cross would have adapted it to changing circumstances.— More probably during known changes climate became unfit for. subalpina, or some Northern species, & being restricted species has been Made.—

In the hybrid grouse between Black Cock & Ptarmigan (probably subalpina.) former has blue breast, latter reddish, hybrid purple— be careful, See to hybrids between Pheasant & Black Cock, & other hybrids—

The fact of Egyptian animals not having changed is good—1 I scarcely hesitate to say that if there had been considerable change, it would have been greater puzzle, than none, for the «e»normous time



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  • 1. See B6, B16, and D39.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 107
Notebook D
D 107
1838.09.13 & 1838.09.14

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which it must have taken to separate. Van Diemen's land from Australia &c &c

Sept. 14th. When Macleay says their is no difference between t “ permanent varieties” & species.1 he overlooks— restric those restr restricted in their range by men & by art.— the former only giving average of effects of country, (& no monstrosity, or adaptation to unhealthy state of womb).—2

One can perceive that Natural varieties or species., all the structure of which is adaptation to habits (& habit second nature) may be more in constitutional.,— more conformable to the structure which has been adapted to former changes. than a mere monstrosity propagated by art.
  • 1. See D52.
  • 2. Darwin is distinguishing between free-ranging domestic animals, which live in semi-natural conditions (e.g. Highland sheep and Chillingham cattle) and those which are entirely dependent on man (e.g. fancy pigeons).
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 108
Notebook D
D 108
1838.09.14-1838.09.17

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Yarrell told me of a cat & of a dog, born without front legs— — the former of which had kittens with imperfect ones.— now Sir J. Sebright.1 thought if he had had a pair he could have produced from these.— this instance of monstrous variety. which could not have been persistent in nature.—

According to my view, the domesticated animals would cease being fertile inter se., or at least show repugnance to breeding if instincts unchanged, & if their characteristic qualities were all deeply imbued in them from long permanence, so that all their peculiarities must be transmitted if their

[109e−110e not located]



  • 1. William Yarrell and Sir J. S. Sebright: personal communications.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 111
Notebook D
D 111
1838.09.14-1838.09.17

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The every case common to many good species; & therefore to genera (& the uncles & aunts) & therefore does not tell against transmutation of species— Will it against genera.— How long will the wretched inhabitants of NW. Australia, go on blinking their eyes. without extermination, & change of structure.— When will the musquitoes of S. America take an effect.— would perfect impunity from muskitoes bite influence propagation of species.— Case of Association very disagreeable hearing maed servant cleaning door outside, as often as she touched handle, though really fully aware she was not coming in, could not help being perfectly distracteda «Referred to other Book M.1»b



aCase of . . . distracted] crossed.
b«Referred to other Book M.»] presume added
  • 1. Darwin cross references this case in M142.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 112
Notebook D
D 112
1838.09.14-1838.09.17

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Is there any law of variation.«(as Hunter supposes with Monsters1 if armless cat can propagate,2 ie with the chance of two being born at same time, & make breed, one would doubt any law.— Yet seeing the feathers along one toe of the Pouter one thinks there is a law.,—3 that there must have been a tendency for feathers to grow there «That Mutilations will not alter form may be inferred from Australians knocking out teeth.—4 the account of the people on the NW. Coast blinking to keep out flies might be used» The wild ass has no cross. how comes it that the tame donkey has. [old Buffon should be read on Mare5

My view, why hybrids are infertile. supposes that when fœtus is forming the ovum within it, is forming «& this must be so, else avitism could hardly ever occur.—».— & if that cannot be formed, genetal organs by that co-relation of parts, will not be produced.—
  • 1. For 'Hunter's Law' of correlated variation in monsters see Hunter 1837:44−45, which is quoted in note D57−1. See also note D113−2 for the textual relation of that quote to Hunter's definition of primary and secondary sexual characters.
  • 2. Refers to the case in D108.
  • 3. That is, a broader law of correlated variation than Hunter's, which emphasises monsters.
  • 4. See T. L. Mitchell 1838, 2:339, 'But still more remarkable is the practice of striking out one of the front teeth at the age of puberty . . .'
  • 5. Buffon 1762.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 83: 70
Mammals-67 Note, Notebook D: 113-114 (excised page)
D 113e
1838.09.17

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Sept. 17th. Saw mule. apparently fathered by a donkey. with all four legs ringed with brown.— animal like large, heavily made cream coloured ass.— stripe on back also.— legs reminded me strongly of Zebra.—a5 bMem. Quagga & Ld Morton Mare1 ringed c

Owen says that Bell in Encyclop of Anat & Phys. describes, a high-flying bat, which has the power of inflating its body like balloon— by air cells connected with cheek pouches.—d 2

Hunter's Animal Œconomy p. 45 “ One of the most general marks is the superior strength of «of make in» the males; & another circumstance, perhaps, equally so, is this strength being directed to one part more than another, which part is that most immediately employed in fighting” 3 instances thighs of cock & Neck of Bull.— is most common in vegetable feeders. because males always armed in carnivora.e Where females, are peacable—4 (Mem Lucanus & Copris &c)5.— In birds singingf12 g



aSaw mule . . . Zebra.—] crossed pencil
b5] added in brown crayon to ‘Saw mule . . . Zebra.—’ and crossed pencil
cMem. Quagga ... Mare ringed ]added pencil
dOwen says . . . pouches.—] crossed blue crayon
ebecause males ... in carnivora.] added pencil, 'armed' underlined
fHunter's . . . birds singing] crossed pencil
g12] added in brown crayon toHunter's . . . birds singing’, double scored blue crayon

  • 1. George Douglas (16th Earl of Morton), 1761-1827.
  • 2. Richard Owen: personal communication. T. Bell 1836, 1:599, 'In the genus Nycteris a curious faculty is observed, namely, the power of inflating the subcutaneous tissue with air....By this curious mechanism the bat has the power of so completely blowing up the spaces under the skin, as to give the idea, as Geoffroy observes, “ of a little balloon furnished with wings, a head, and feet” .'
  • 3. Hunter 1837:45−46 (An account of any extraordinary pheasant), 'One of the most general marks is, the superior strength of make in the male; and another circumstance perhaps equally so, is this strength being directed to one part more than another, which part is that most immediately employed in fighting. This difference in external form is more particularly remarkable in the animals whose females are of a peaceable nature, as are the greatest number of those which feed on vegetables, and the marks to discriminate the sexes are in them very numerous. The males of almost every class of animals are probably disposed to fight, being, as I have observed, stronger than the females; and in many of these there are parts destined solely for that purpose, as the spurs in the cock, and the horns in the bull; and on that account the strength of the bull lies principally in his neck; that of the cock in his limbs.' This passage immediately follows Hunter's famous definition of primary and secondary sexual characters (1837:44−45): 'It is well known that many orders of animals have the two parts designed for the purpose of generation different in individuals of the same species, by which they are distinguished into male and female; but this is not the only mark of distinction, in the greatest part the male being distinguished from the female by various other marks. The varieties which are found in the parts of generation themselves I shall call the first or principal marks, being originally formed in them, and belonging equally to both sexes; all others depending upon these I shall call secondary, as not taking place till the first are becoming of use, and being principally, although not entirely, in the male.' The latter passage immediately follows the statement of 'Hunter's Law' of correlated variation, which is given in note D57−1.
  • 4. Hunter 1837:45−46, quoted above.
  • 5. See Natural Selection p. 131, 'In the Stag-Beetle, & indeed generally in the Lucanidæ, the mandibles in the males are enormously developed & are eminently variable . . .'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 83: 70
Mammals-67 Note, Notebook D: 113-114 (excised page)
D 114e
1838.09.17

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of cocks settle point.— (do the females then fight for male) & are merely most attracted). — singing best sign of most vigorous males.— «(NB. most strange cocks & hens. being either alike or very different in recently altered genera. Guinea Fowl & Peaccocks.!!» other birds display beauty of plumage.— (The females (as Owen observes) in Raptorial birds largest.— p. 47.1 ( is evidently the male which recedes from the species all females being most like offspringa, (Q) b (how is this with those females which put on (like some waders) the bright plumage.—2 «thinks» Hence specific character most perfect in male «hermaphrodite».—3

(Fishes have no secondary characters.—4)p. 49. (wonderful case of Pea hen. taking feathers of Peacock & spursc5 no final cause here.6 & therefore different from Hunter I should say females recede in organization from specific character.—7
Chapt I. Also Latent Characterd




'11' added to page brown crayon.
ap. 47 ... like offspring] double scored brown crayon.
b(Q)] added pencil in circle.
c
Peacock & spurs] 'P' over 'e'.
dChapt I. Also Latent Character] added to page in mixture of brown crayon and pencil: 'Chapt I. Also' and underlining of 'Latent' in pencil, 'ent' in pencil over 'ent' in brown crayon.

  • 1. Hunter 1837:46. Hunter's text: 'In carnivorous animals, whose prey is often of a kind which requires strength to kill, we do not find such a difference in the form of the male and female, very little being discernible in the dog and bitch, in the he or she cat, of in the cock and hen of the eaglea.' Owen's note a: 'The difference in the size of the two sexes is sufficiently marked in most of the Raptorial birds; but it is the female which has the advantage in this respect.'
  • 2. Hunter 1837:47−48, 'In some species of animals that have the secondary properties we have mentioned, there is a deviation from the general rule, by the perfect female, with respect to the parts of generation, assuming more or less the secondary character of the male. 'This change does not appear to arise from any action produced at the first formation of the animal, and in this respect is similar to what takes place in the male; neither does it grow up with the animal as it does to a certain degree in the male, but seems to be one of those changes which happen at a particular period, similar to many common and natural phenomena; like to what is observed of the horns of the stag, which differ at different ages; or to the mane of the lion, which does not grow till after his fifth year, &c.'
  • 3. Hunter 1837:46−47, 'To bring the foregoing observations into one point of view, I here beg leave to remark, that in animals just born, or very young, there are no peculiarities to distinguish one sex from the other, exclusive of what relates to the organs of generation, which can only be in those who have external parts; and that towards the age of maturity the discriminating changes before mentioned begin to appear; the male then losing that resemblance he had to the female in various secondary properties; but that in all animals which are not of any distinct sex, called hermaphrodites, there is no such alteration taking place in their form when they arrive at that age. It is evidently the male which at this time in such respects recedes from the female, every female being at the age of maturity more like the young of the same species than the male is observed to be; and if the male is deprived, of his testes when young, he retains more of the original youthful form, and therefore more resembles the female. 'From hence it might be supposed that the female character contains more truly the specific properties of the animal than the male; but the character of every animal is that which is marked by the properties common to both sexes, which are found in a natural hermaphrodite, as in a snail, or in animals of neither sex, as the castrated male or spayed female. 'But where the sexes are separate, and the animals have two characters, the one cannot more than the other be called the true, as the real distinguishing marks of each particular species . . . are those common to both sexes, and which are likewise in the unnatural hermaphrodite. That these properties give the distinct character of such animals is evident, for the castrated male and the spayed female have both the same common properties; and when I treated of the free-martin, which is a monstrous hermaphrodite, I observed that it was more like the ox than the cow or bull; so that the marks characteristic of the species which are found in the animal of a double sex are imitated by depriving the individual of certain sexual parts, in consequence of which it retains only the true properties of the species. 'They are curious facts in the natural history of animals, that by depriving either sex of the true parts of generation, they shall seem to approach each other in appearances, and acquire a resemblance to the unnatural hermaphrodite.'
  • 4. Hunter 1837:47 note, 'in fishes there is no great difference'. See D169 and T25−26, where Darwin notes a sexual difference in Syngnathus.
  • 5. See Hunter 1837:48−49. In the descriptive or evidentiary part of his essay, Hunter analyses a series of cases where post-reproductive female pheasants acquire male secondary sexual characters. The case Darwin calls 'wonderful' is the final one in the series and becomes the epitome for Hunter's theoretical summation, 'Lady Tynte had a favourite pied pea-hen which had produced chickens eight several times; having moulted when about eleven years old, the lady and family were astonished by her displaying the feathers peculiar to the other sex, and appeared like a pied peacock. In this process the tail, which became like that of the cock, first made its appearance after moulting; and in the following year, having moulted again, produced similar feathers. In the third year she did the same, and, in addition, had spurs resembling those of a cock. She never bred after this change in her plumage, and died in the following winter during the hard frost in the year 1775−6.' (p. 49). See D154 and Yarrell 1827.
  • 6. Since the female is past her reproductive period there is no fulfillment of the 'final cause' of reproduction, which Darwin here regards to be the perpetuation of the species. See also E147 on the absence of final cause: 'no one can be shocked at absence of final cause mammæ in man & wings under united elytra.'
  • 7. Hunter 1837:49, 'The female, at a much later time of life, when the powers of propagation cease, loses many of her peculiar properties, and may be said, except from mere structure of parts, to be of no sex, even receding from the original character of the animal, and approaching, in appearance, towards the male, or perhaps more properly towards the hermaphrodite.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 115
Notebook D
D 115
1838.09.17

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Hunter Animal Economya
p. 482 (Same book) Owen says “ the necessity of combining observation of the living habits of animals, with anatomical & Zoologicalb research, in order to establish entirely their place in nature, as well as fully to understand their œconomy, is now universally admitted.” ” —1 p. 483. Owen thinks from climate of Australia, & from Ornithorhyncus & Hydromys not being Marsupial. («but» also mice) & these being water animals that this structure connected with animals being compelled to travers “ May have reference to the Great distances which the Mammalia of N. S. Wales are generally compelled to traverse in order to quench their thirst” —2 But New Guinea.— !! S. America.— Such difficulties will always occur if animals are thought to have been created.—3 it might as well be attempted to be shown from peculiarities of climate cause of N. Zealand not having any Mammalia.— Type of geographical organization. no more can be said. . . .



aHunter Animal Economy] added pencil
bZoological] 'Zoo' over 'physio'
  • 1. Hunter 1837:482 (Descriptions of some animals from New South Wales). Hunter's text: 'The subjects themselves may be valuable, and may partly explain their connection with those related to them, so as in some measure to establish their place in naturea, but they cannot do it entirely; they only give us the form and construction, but leave us in other respects to conjecture, many of them requiring further observation relative to their oeconomy.' Owen's note a: 'It is interesting to meet with these indications of the spirit in which Hunter prosecuted his zoological researches. To ascertain the affinities of the animals whose structure he explored, or, in other words, to establish a natural system of classification, was not less the aim of Hunter than the determination of the functions of the different organs in the animal frame; and the truth of the remark of the necessity of combining observation of the living habits of animals, with anatomical and zoological research, in order to establish entirely their place in nature, as well as to fully understand their oeconomy, is now universally admitted.'
  • 2. Hunter 1837:483 note, 'Many have been the conjectures respecting the final intention of the premature birth of the marsupial animal, and the various singular modifications of structure necessitated by, and adapted to that circumstance. Since it obtains in quadrupeds of almost every variety of form, and with various modes of locomotion and diversity of diet, it must result from some more general law than individual proportions or habits of the parent. It is associated with a marked inferiority of cerebral organization; . . . Long-continued droughts and a scarcity of freshwater streams are amongst the most striking features of the climate and territory of Australia; and when we reflect that the principal exceptions to the marsupial organization, viz. the Ornithorhynchus and the Hydromys, or water-rat of the colonists, habitually inhabit the freshwater ponds, the peculiarities of the re-production above described may have reference to the great distances which the mammalia of New South Wales are generally compelled to traverse in order to quench their thirst.'
  • 3. Note that Darwin disparages Owen's functional teleology while maintaining his higher order teleology.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 116
Notebook D
D 116
1838.09.17 & 1838.09.19

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In paper on bees in same work. (it is said that some kind lay pu up honey even for single rainy day—1 & from case of wasps, is supposed cells properly are made for larvæ.—2 [(p. 451.)— Wasps breed many females, but almost all die.— bees breed but few, because they are kept in security.—3 Hunter doubts about production of Queens.—4 Neuters are bred first, «then males—»5 how has this been arranged— Neuters are true females, but with parts little developed.—

Sept. 19th Are There is no scale, according to importance of divisions in arrangement, of the perfection of
  • 1. Hunter 1837:432 (Observations on bees), 'When they [a swarm] have fixed upon their future habitation, they immediately begin to make their combs, for they have the materials within themselves. I have reason to believe that they fill their crops with honey when they come away; probably from the stock in the hive.'
  • 2. Hunter 1837:437, 'The comb seems at first to be formed for propagation, and the reception of honey to be only a secondary use; for if the bees lose their queen they make no combs; and the wasp, hornet, &c. make combs, although they collect no honey; and the humble bee collects honey, and deposits it in cells she never made.'
  • 3. Hunter 1837:451, 'This circumstance, that so few queens are bred, must arise from the natural security the queen is in from the mode of their society; for although there is but one queen in a wasp's, hornet's, and humble bee's nest or hive, yet these breed a great number of queens; the wasp and hornet some hundreds; but not living in society during the winter, they are subject to great destruction, so that probably not one in a hundred lives to breed in the summer.'
  • 4. Hunter 1837:451−52, 'Mr. Riem asserts, he has seen the copulation between the male and the female, but does not say at what season. I should doubt this; but Mr. Schirach supposes the queen impregnated without copulation. I know not whether he means by this that she is not impregnated at all, and supposes, like Mr. Debraw, that the eggs are impregnated after they are laid, by a set of small drones, who pass over the cells, and thrust their tails down into the cell, so as to besmear the egg. ... It is probable that the copulation is like that of most other insects. . . . The circumstances relative to impregnating the queen not being known, great room has been given for conjecture, ...'
  • 5. Hunter 1837:452, 'The males, I believe, are later in being bred than the labouring, bee.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 117
Notebook D
D 117
1838.09.19

Editorial symbols


their separation.— thus Vertebrate blend with Annelidæ by some fish.— But birds quite distinct.—

Collect cases of difficulty of growing plants in all parts of world, thus tea tree in Brazil must have degenerated. as must spices &c &c The line of argument «often» pursued throughout my theory is to establish a point as a probability by induction, & to apply it as hypothesis to other points. & see whether it will solve them.—
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 118
Notebook D
D 118
[1838.09.19-1838.09.23] & 1838.09.23

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It is less wonderful that childs nervous system should build up its body, like its parent, than that it should be provided with many contingencies how to act— so with the mind. the simplest transmission is direct instinct. & afterwards enlarged powers to meet with contingency.—a

Sept. 23rd. Saw in Loddiges Garden. 1279 varieties of roses!!! proof of capability of variation.—1 Saw his collection of «Humming» birds, saw several fully developed tails, & one with beak turned up like Avocette. here is what

[119e-126e not located]





aIt is ... contingency.—] pencil
  • 1. See Loddiges 1823.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 127
Notebook D
D 127
1838.09.23-1838.09.25

Editorial symbols


that it shall beget young different in colour, form, & so altered in disposition, as to be more easily trained up to the (required) offices” &c &c Owen illustrates case of Dingo (he alludes to the dholes or wild dogs of India) in Zoolog. Garden having coloured offspring.—1 but surely in all these cases an unseen change is produced in parents—colour is a doubtful subject, but what other instances are there of such changes, not acquired by parent, being handed down?



page crossed pencil
  • 1. Hunter 1837:330 (Observations tending to show that the wolf, jackal, and dog, are all of the same species). Hunter's text: 'As animals are known to produce young which are different from themselves in colour, form, and dispositions, arising from what may be called the un- natural mode of life, it shows this curious power of accommodation in the animal oeconomy, that although education can produce no change in the colour, form, or disposition of the animal, yet it is capable of producing a principle which becomes so natural to the animal that it shall beget young different in coloura and form, and so altered in disposition as to be more easily trained up to the offices in which they have been usually employed, and having these dispositions suitable to such change of form.' Owen's note a: 'This has recently been exemplified in the produce of a male and female Dingo, or wild dog of Australia, brought forth at the Zoological Gardens, and under circumstances which precluded the possibility of connection between the female and any other dog than the male with which she was kept confined. Two, out of the litter of five puppies brought forth, had the uniform red-brown colour of the parents, the rest were more or less pied, brown and white.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 128
Notebook D
D 128
1838.09.23-1838.09.25

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Are not Loddiges 1279 roses kept in same soil. same atmosphere?—1 may they produced not be transplanted?, & yet year after year, successive roses & bud are produced, like parent stock, or if different dieteriorating very slowly.— I presume most of these roses, without circumstances very unfavourable, will deteriorated continue of same variety as long as life lasts, yet they cannot transmit through seeds these characters though transmitting them with such facility to bud.— this must be owing to their unity in one stem.—
  • 1. See Loddiges 1823.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 129
Notebook D
D 129
1838.09.23-1838.09.25

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a bud may be transplanted & carry all these peculiarities not so a seed.— Bud probably is like cutting off tail of Planaria, the whole grown to that part.— claw1 added to crab, tail to lizard,— healing of wound.— reproductive faculty +a in the separated part every element of the living body is present— in generation something is added from one part of the body «(or of other like «similar» body)» to anotherb part of body.— [in plants does not whole individual change into generative organs?] it is of no consequence if it does= I do not doubt, the Do plants loose any qualities by being buds— , more than if whole branch transplanted? +.simplest forms of budding. Why does Gecko produce always different tail?c



aclaw added . . . faculty +] added pencil, 'reproductive faculty' underlined
banother] 'an' over 'the'
c+ .simplest . . . different tail?] added pencil
  • 1. Read the pencil additions to D129−131 as a unit. The fact that 'twin' in D131 was emmended in grey ink proves that this pencil unit is contemporaneous with the ink text.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 130
Notebook D
D 130
1838.09.23-1838.09.25

Editorial symbols


An Individual bud may be thus produced from the growth of one part, (not strictly new individual), or he may produced by having undergone, the endless changes, which its parents have.— — Not this is effected by short method in generation.—

Ehrenberg considers artificial division of animals, as gemmation, I consider gemmation as artificial division.—1 On this view each particle of animal must have structure of whole comprehended in itself.— it must have the knowledge how to grow, & therefore to repair wounds— but this has nothing to do with generation.— Why crab can produce claw. but man not arm. hard to saya



aWhy Crab . . . hard to say—] added pencil
  • 1. Ehrenberg 1838b:653, 'Paramecium aurelia was not one of the examples best adapted for the examination of the gastric vesicles, which he believed to be digestive cavities capable of great dilatation; and moreover he had witnessed the expulsion of a kind of exuvium apparently thrown off from their interior: he believed the process of multiplication by division to be merely the developement of a gemma or bud, a view which would much simplify our ideas concerning that singular mode of propagation.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 131
Notebook D
D 131
1838.09.23-1838.09.25

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if it were possible to support the arm of Man, when cut off, it would produce another man.— That the embryo the thousandth of inch should produce a Newton is often thought wonderful. it is part of same class of facts that the skin grows over a wound.— Does likeness of twina bear on this subject?b

A mans arm would produce arm if supported., so & in making «true» bud some such process is effected.— a child might be so born. but it would be very different from true generation.— there is no caterpillar state; the vast difference of two kinds of generation shown by their happening in same plant.—



atwin] emmended grey ink
bif it were . . . twin bear on this subject?] added pencil, 'support', 'thousandth' underlined
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 132
Notebook D
D 132
1838.09.23-1838.09.25

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The Marsupial structure shows that they became Mammalia, through a different series of changes from the placentates, Having Hair. like true Mammalia, no more wonderful. than Echidna. & Hedgehog having spines.—

Does not male Pidgeon (yes) surely) secrete milk? from stomach. analogous to other males feeding young, & to abortive organs «mammæ» in male Mammalia:— ⸮is not this argument, for Mammalia recent creation.—

why. what tendency can there be for abortive organ ever disappearing??—

Have Marsupiata abortive Mammæ?.—
My view would make every individual a spontaneous generation: what is animalcular semen— but this— — the nerve living nerve nursed in Mould.—
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 39c
Notebook D: 101, 102, 133, 134, 135, 136 (excised pages)
D 133e
1838.09.23-1838.09.25

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Lyells Elements. p. 290. Dr. Beck on numerical proportion in shells in Arctic Ocean.1 p. 350 Grallæ in Wealden. oldest birds.2 p. 411a—  19 b  Decapod Crust in Muschelkalk, & 5 genera of reptiles.—3 M p. 417. Magnesian Limestones & Zechstein oldest rock in which reptiles have been found.4 p. 426 Sauroid fish in Coal, true fish, & not intermediate between fish & reptiles— yet osteology closely resembles reptiles.—5 p. 432 some plants in coal supposed to be intermediate between Coniferous trees & Lycopodiums.—6 p. 437. Many. existing genera of shells in the mountain limestone (how different from plants!) But the Cephalopoda depart more widely from living forms.—7p 458 Upper Silurian, fishes oldest formation highly organizedc.—8



a411] '11' over '41'
b19] added in brown crayon to ‘Lyells . . . p. 411’
cDecapod . . . organized] crossed pencil
  • 1. 1 Lyell 1838a: 289−90, 'Now, it has been suggested by Dr. Beck, in order to form such an estimate of the comparative resemblance of the faunas of different eras, we may follow the same plan as would enable us to appreciate the amount of agreement or discrepancy between the faunas now existing in two distinct geographical regions. It is well known that, although nearly all the species of mollusca inhabiting the temperate zones on each side of the equator are distinct, yet the whole assemblage of species in one of these zones bears a striking analogy to that in the other, and differs in a corresponding manner from the tropical and arctic faunas. By what language can the zoologist express such points of agreement or disagreement, where the species are admitted to be distinct? 'In such cases it is necessary to mark the relative abundance in the two regions compared of certain families, genera and sections of genera; the entire absence of some of these, the comparative strength of others, this strength being sometimes represented by the numbers of species, sometimes by the great abundance and size of the individuals of certain species. It is, moreover, important to estimate the total number of species inhabiting a given area; and also the average proportion of species to genera, as this differs materially according to climate. Thus if we adopt comprehensive genera like those of Lamarck, we shall find, according to Dr. Beck, that, upon an average, there are in arctic latitudes nearly as many genera as species; in the temperate regions, about three or four species to a genus; in the tropical, five or six species to a genus.' Darwin scored 'proportion of species to genera . . . six species to a genus.' This may bear directly on D134 'We ought . . . changes in number of species, from small changes in nature of locality.' That is, changes in number of species per genus with different locality—as Lyell expresses it above. See also E59.
  • 2. Lyell 1838a:350−51, 'The bones of birds of the order Grallae or waders have been discovered by Mr. Mantell in the Wealden, and appear to be the oldest well-authenticated examples of fossils of this class hitherto found in Great Britain. But no portion of the skeleton of a mammiferous quadruped has yet been met with.' Passage scored:'The bones . . .Britain'. See B172 'Oh. Wealden.— Wealden.—'.
  • 3. Lyell 1838a:410−11, 'There are also some encrinites in the Muschelkalk, and some teeth of cartilaginous fish, a few decapod crustacea, and no less than five genera of large extinct reptiles, all peculiar to the Muschelkalk, as Phytosaurus, Dracosaurus, and others.' Darwin underlined 'decapod' and scored 'a few . . . reptiles'.
  • 4. Lyell 1838a:417, 'The remains of at least two saurian animals of new genera, Palaeosaurus and Thecodontosaurus have been lately discovered in the dolomitic conglomerate near Bristol. They are allied to the Iguana and Monitor, and are the most ancient examples of fossil reptiles yet found in Great Britain. The Zechstein of Germany is also the oldest rock on the continent in which Saurian remains have been found.' Passage scored.
  • 5. Lyell 1838a:425, 'No bones of mammalia or reptiles have as yet been discovered in strata of the carboniferous group. The fish are numerous, and for the most part very remote in their organization from those now living, as they belong chiefly to the Sauroid family of Agassiz; as Megalichthys, Holoptychus, and others, which were often of great size, and all predaceous. Their osteology, says M. Agassiz [1833−43, bk 4:62, bk 5:88], reminds us in many respects of the skeletons of saurian reptiles, both by the close sutures of the bones of the skull, their large conical teeth striated longitudinally (see Fig. 248;), the articulations of the spinous processes with the vertebrae, and other characters. Yet they do not form a family intermediate between fish and reptiles, but are true fish.' Passage scored: 'Yet they . . . fish.'
  • 6. Lyell 1838a:431−32, 'Another class of fossils, very common in the coal-shales, have been named Lepidodendra. Some of these are of small size, and approach very near in form to the modern Lycopodiums, or club-mosses, while others of much larger dimensions are supposed to have been intermediate between these and coniferous plants.' Passage scored: 'Lycopodiums . . . plants'. Darwin underlined 'intermediate between these and coniferous'.
  • 7. Lyell 1838a:437, 'There are also many univalve and bivalve shells of existing genera in the Mountain Limestone, such as Turritella, Buccinum, Patella, Isocardia, Nucula, and Pecten. But the Cephalopoda depart, in general, more widely from living forms, some being generically distinct from all those found in strata newer than the Coal.' Passage scored. Darwin underlined 'existing genera', 'Cephalopoda', and 'more widely'.
  • 8. Lyell 1838a:458, 'Ludlow formation.— This member of the upper Silurian group ... is of great thickness . . . The most remarkable fossils are the scales, icthyodorulites, jaws, teeth, and coprolites of fish, of the upper Ludlow rock. As they are the oldest remains of vertebrated animals yet known to geologists, it is worthy of notice that they belong to fish of a high or very perfect organization.' Passage scored: 'The most . . . organization'.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 39d
Notebook D: 101, 102, 133, 134, 135, 136 (excised pages)
D 134e
1838.09.23-1838.09.25 & 1838.09.25 & 1838.09.28

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do. p. 461.— Lower Silurian— several existing genera. Nautilus turbo. buccinum. turritella. terebratula, orbiculas, with many extinct forms & Trilobites1
Sept 25th. In considering infertility of hybrids inter se, the first cross generally brothers & sisters, & therefore somewhat unfavourable—2
28th. «I do not doubt, every one till he thinks deeply has assumed that increase of animals exactly proportiona[l]a to the number that can live.—» We ought to be far from wondering of changes in number of species, from small changes in nature of locality.3 Even the energetic language of Malthus «Decandoelle4» does not convey the warring of the species as inference from Malthus.— «increase of brutes, must be prevented solely by positive checks, excepting that famine may stop desire.—5» in Nature production does not increase, whilst no checks prevail, but the positive check of famine & consequently death..6



page crossed pencil
aproportiona[l] ] part of 'l' on stub.
  • 1. Lyell 1838a:461, 'There are also several genera of mollusca in this deposit, and it is an interesting fact, that with many extinct forms of testacea peculiar to the lower Silurian rocks, such as orthoceras, pentamerus, spirifer, and productus, others are associated belonging to genera still existing, as nautilus, turbo, buccinum, turritella, and orbicula.' Passage scored.
  • 2. Thus hybrids would suffer from the combined disadvantages of inbreeding and hybridization. Compare with D10 and D14.
  • 3. See note D133−1.
  • 4. See Lyell 1837, 3:87−88, ' “ All the plants of a given country,” says De Candolle, in his usual spirited style, “ are at war one with another” .'
  • 5. See note D134−6. See also Darwin's previous interest in inbreeding stopping desire, e.g. B176, D177.
  • 6. Malthus 1826, 1:12−13, 'These checks to population, which are constantly operating with more or less force in every society, and keep down the number to the level of the means of subsistence, may be classed under two general heads— the preventive, and the positive checks.
      'The preventive check, as far as it is voluntary, is peculiar to man, and arises from that distinctive superiority in his reasoning faculties, which enables him to calculate distant consequences. The checks to the indefinite increase of plants and irrational animals are all either positive, or, if preventive, involuntary.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 39e
Notebook D: 101, 102, 133, 134, 135, 136 (excised pages)
D 135e
1838.09.28

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population in increase at geometrical ratio in FAR SHORTER time than 25 years— yet until the one sentence of Malthus no one clearly perceived the great check amongst men.—1 «Even a few years plenty, makes population in Men increase,2 & an ordinary crop. causes a dearth then in Spring, like food used for other purposes as wheat for making brandy.—» take Europe on an average, every species must have same number killed, year with year, by hawks. by. cold &c— .. even one species of hawk decreasing in number must effect instantaneously all the rest.— One may say there is a force like a hundred thousand wedges trying force into every kind of adapted structure into the gaps of in the œconomy of Nature, or rather forming gaps by thrusting out weaker ones. «The final cause of all this wedgings, must be to sort out proper structure & adapt it to change.—3 to do that, for form, which Malthus shows, is the final effect, (by means however of volition) of this populousness, on the energy of Man4»



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  • 1. Malthus 1826, 1:5, 'In the northern states of America, where the means of subsistence have been more ample, the manners of the people more pure, and the checks to early marriages fewer, than in any of the modern states of Europe, the population has been found to double itself, for above a century and half successively, in less than twenty-five years. Yet, even during these periods, in some of the towns, the deaths exceeded the births, a circumstance which clearly proves that, in those parts of the country which supplied this deficiency, the increase must have been much more rapid than the general average.' The single sentence that caught Darwin's attention may have been: 'It may safely be pronounced, therefore, that population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty-five years, or increases in a geometrical ratio.' (1:6). Or: 'A thousand millions are just as easily doubled every twenty-five years by the power of population as a thousand. But the food to support the increase from the greater number will by no means be obtained with the same facility. Man is necessarily confined in room.' (1:7).
  • 2. See Malthus 1826, 1:18−19, which discusses the dynamics of population oscillations, '. . . ultimately the means of subsistence may become in the same proportion to the population, as at the period from which we set out. The situation of the labourer being then again tolerably comfortable, the restraints to population are in some degree loosened; and, after a short period, the same retrograde and progressive movements, with respect to happiness, are repeated.'
  • 3. This passage is Darwin's first formulation of natural selection, particularly as the origin of adaptation. It is unambiguously crystallized by his reading of Malthus on 28 September 1838. Darwin completed reading Malthus 1826 on 2−3 October. (See E3, 'Journal', and 'Books examined with ref. to Species.—' C 270: 'October 3d Malthus on Population'). The theory continued to take form in Notebook E.
  • 4. See Malthus 1826, 1:94−95. 'The combined causes soon produce their natural and invariable effect, an extended population. A more frequent and rapid change of place then becomes necessary. A wider and more extensive territory is successively occupied. A broader desolation extends all around them. Want pinches the less fortunate members of society: and at length the impossibility of supporting such a number together becomes too evident to be resisted. Young scions are then pushed out from the parent stock, and instructed to explore fresh regions, . . . Restless from present distress, flushed with the hope of fairer prospects, animated with the spirit of hardy enterprise, these daring adventurers are likely to become formidable adversaries to all who oppose them. The inhabitants of countries long settled, engaged in the peaceful occupations of trade and agriculture, would not often be able to resist the energy of men acting under such powerful motives of exertion. And the frequent contests with tribes in the same circumstances with themselves, would be so many struggles for existence . . .'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 39f
Notebook D: 101, 102, 133, 134, 135, 136 (excised pages)
D 136e
1838.09.28 & 1838.09.29

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D.'Orbigny. Comtes Rendus p. 569. 1838 says the cross between the Guaranis & Spaniards are almost White from first generation., that with Quichuas the American character is more tenacious. & does nota disappear for Many generationsb 1
Sept. 29th Dr. Andrew. Smith «Remarks on extraordinary curiosity of Monkeys».2 The Baboon of which anecdotes have been told is Cyanocephalus Porcarius.— this Monkey did not like a great coat made for it at first, but in two or three days learn its comfort & though could not put it on, yet threw it overc



adoes not] 'd' over 'n'
bD'. Orbigny . . . generations] '16' added brown crayon
cSept 29th . . . threw it over] crossed pencil
  • 1. Orbigny 1838:569, 'Il existe une inégalité étonnante entre le mélange des Espagnols avec telle ou telle race américaine. Avec les Guaranis, les Métis sont de belle taille, presque blancs; leurs traits sont beaux dès la première génération, tandis qu'avec les Quichuas, les traits américains sont plus tenaces et ne disparaissent qu'après plusieurs générations.'
  • 2. Andrew Smith: personal communication.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 137
Notebook D
D 137
1838.09.29

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it, & made it meet in front.— Dr Smith every baboon & monkey, big & little that ever he saw knew women.— he has repeatedly seen them try to pull up petticoats., & if woman not afraid clasp them round waist & look in their faces & Mak the st. st noise.— The Cercopithecus chinensis: (or bonnet faced monkey he has seen do this.— These Monkeys had no curiosity to pull up trousers of men. Evidently knew men women, thinks perhaps by smell.— but monkeys examine sexes of every
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 138
Notebook D
D 138
1838.09.29

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Has repeatedly seen one he kept pull up feathers of tail of Hen; which lived with it.— also of a dog«s». but did not seem to evince more lewdness for bitch than dog: Monkey thus examine each other sexes,— «by taking up tail» Mem: Ourang Jenny with Tommy.— Good evidence of knowledge of Woman— The noise st st. which the C. Sphynx makes is also made by the C. porcarious., together with a grunting noise, the former signifies recognition with pleasure, as when food is offered, as much as to
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 139
Notebook D
D 139
1838.09.29 & 1838.09.29-[1838.10.02]

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say give me— the other when Dr. Smith more distant.— But he thinks other monkeys make st.— noise In case of woman instinctive desire may be said to be more definite than with bitch, for some feeling must urge them to these actions. «These facts may, be turned to ridicule, or may be thought disgusting, but to philosophic naturalist pregnant with interest»

Hyæna. thinks, when pleased cocks his ears., when frighten depresses them.—

England was united to Continent, when elephants lived. & when present animals— lived.— we know the great time, necessary to form channel & (& Basses St) yet no change in English species— time no element in making change, only in fixing it: only circumstances. a contingency of time.1
  • 1. See D174, 'How completely circumstances «alone» make changes or species!!'.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 140
Notebook D
D 140
1838.09.29-[1838.10.02]

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When we multiply the effects of earthquakes, elevating forces in raising continents, & forming mountain-chains, when we estimate the matter removed by the waves of the sea, on beaches— we really, measure the rapidity of change of form, & instincts in the animal kingdom.— It is the unit of our calendar.— epochs & creations, reduce themselves to the revolutions of our system in the Heaverns.—

Is not puma, same colour as Lion. because inhabitant of plain & Jaguar of woods &c like ground birds


[141e-146e not located]



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Cambridge University Library DAR 84.2: 36
Birds-35 Note, Notebook D: 147-148 (excised page)
D 147e
1838.09.29-[1838.10.02]

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:Hence, also structure not really fitted for water, only habits & instincts—a 1 The young of the p Kingfisher (.p. 169) has the colour on its back bright blue.—2 «thus young of» Many of the pies assume the metallic tints, such as Magpie, Jay, & perhaps all the rollers—3 «He says» whenever metallic brilliancy is present in Young birds, one may be sure cock & hen will be alike—4 I presume converse is not true for he says Hen & cock Starling alike, yet young ones brown.
Sexual Selectionb

If masculine character. added to species,. we can see why young & Female alikec
Good Ch 6d Keepe


Is it Male that assumes change, & is the offspring brought back to earlier type by Mother?— do these differences indicate, species changing forms, & loosing do if so domestic animals ought to show them.—5 Anyhow not connected with habitsf



a:Hence ... & instincts—] crossed pencil
bSexual Selection] added pencil, underlined
cIf masculine ...Female alike] added pencil
dGood Ch 6] added brown crayon, circled in pencil
eKeep] added pencil
fIs it ... habits] crossed pencil

  • 1. See Waterton 1838:2166 (Notes on the habits of the kingfisher), 'Modern ornithologists have thought fit to remove the kingfisher from the land birds, and assign it a place amongst the water-fowl. To me the change appears a bad one; and I could wish to see it brought back again to the original situation in which our ancestors had placed it; for there seems to be nothing in its external formation which can warrant this arbitrary transposition. The plumage of the kingfisher is precisely that of the land bird, and, of course, some parts of the skin are bare of feathers; while the whole body is deprived of that thick coat of down so remarkable in those birds which are classed under the denomination of water-fowl. Its feet are not webbed; its breast-bone is formed like that of land birds; and its legs are ill calculated to enable it to walk into the water. Thus we see that it can neither swim with the duck, nor dive with the merganser, nor wade with the heron. Its act of immersion in the water is quite momentary, and bears no similarity to the immersion of those water-fowl which can pursue their prey under the surface, and persevere for a certain length of time, till they lay hold of it. Still the mode of taking its food is similar to that of the gulls, which first see the fish, and then plunge into the deep to obtain it; but this bird differs from the gull in every other habit.'
  • 2. Waterton 1838:169, 'There is not much difference in appearance betwixt the adult male and female kingfisher; and their young have the fine azure feathers on the back before they leave the nest.'
  • 3. Waterton 1838:169, 'This early metallic brilliancy of plumage seems only to be found in birds of the pie tribe. It obtains in the magpie, the jay, and, most probably, in all the rollers.' See also D160 on metallic tints.
  • 4. Waterton 1838:169, 'Wherever it [metallic brilliancy] is observed in the young birds, we may be certain that the adult male and female will be nearly alike in colour.'
  • 5. Darwin is explicitly using domestication as a model for testing ideas on species formation. This is the pattern he followed through the rest of his career.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 84.2: 36
Birds-35 Note, Notebook D: 147-148 (excised page)
D 148e
1838.09.29-[1838.10.02]

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According as child is like parent, so is species old: Hence young Kingfisher & pies, have long had their present plumage.— How is this in Pidgeons & fowls.— ???

Wate[r]ton1 «p. 197» put 12 wild duck's eggs under common ducks, the young crossed amongst themselves, & I presume with common ducks. so often, that it was impossible to say which was origin of any identical bird— for they were of all colours.— they were “ half wild-half tame, they came to the windows to be fed, but still they have a wariness about them quite remarkable” .2 instance of old Species transmitting so much longer its Mental peculiarities.a b c23 dWildness Reversion eQ f 3

[149e-150e not located]





aMental peculiarities.] full point on stub
bWate[r]ton . . . Mental peculiarities.] crossed pencil
cthem quite . . . Mental peculiarities.] double scored brown crayon
d23] added in brown crayon to ‘Wate[r]ton . . . Mental peculiarities.’
eWildness Reversion] added pencil
fQ] added pencil

  • 1. Charles Waterton, 1792-1897.
  • 2. Waterton 1838:197−98.
  • 3. Quoted in Natural Selection: 486 with other cases of reversion to 'wild' instinct in hybrids.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 40c
Notebook D: 105, 106, 151, 152, 159, 160 (excised pages)
D 151e
1838.09.29-[1838.10.02]

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The present age is the one for large Cetacea, as the past for other Mammalia. & still further back reptiles & Cephalopoda:a
Old Jones remarked to me,1 that one of the children of Sir J. H. was so very like Sir W. whilst Sir J. himself is not like—2 now this is clear case of avitism.b c  but then ⸮was «not» the expression of father Sir W. itself received from his father so that case ceases to be true avitism3
Annals of. Natural. History. p. 135. Natural History of the Caspian. Fresh Water Fish!! ⸮adapted to salt water?— peculiar species, crabs & molluscs few.—4 ⸮are not some same— what is the alliance with the Black sea.— it would be ocean, what is land to continent— Original Paper, worth studying. Archiv. fur. Naturgeschichte.d



aCephalopoda:] ':' emmended pencil
bThe present . . . avitism] crossed pencil
cOld Jones . . . avitism] pencil
dAnnals . . . Naturgeschichte.] '19' added brown crayon
  • 1. Thomas Jones: personal communication. Perhaps the remark was made at the Athenaeum Club, where Jones had been a member since 1830 (Waugh 1888). See Correspondence 2:97, letter to Charles Lyell, 9 August [1838]. 'I met old Jones this evening at the Athenaeum. . .'
  • 2. Possibly John Frederick William Herschel and his father William. As a founder of the Astronomical Society, Jones would have known the Herschels well.
  • 3. See D180, 'Ask my father to look out for instances of Avitism'.
  • 4. Eichwald 1839 (No. 8, October 1838): 135, 'Most of the fish found in the Caspian are fresh-water fish; there are however several peculiar species from genera which hitherto have been observed in salt water only. . . The sea is very poor in Crustacea. . . It is also exceedingly poor in Mollusca compared with the Black Sea. . .'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 40d
Notebook D: 105, 106, 151, 152, 159, 160 (excised pages)
D 152e
1838.09.11

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September 11'
Generation
Mr Yarrell says it is well known that in breeding very pure South Down that the ewe must never be put to any other breed else all the lambs will deteriorate.—1 Lord Moreton's Case.—

When cows have twins, one though capable of producing both male pair of male & female.— if there be one female, she will be free Marten. Owen. See Hunter's Owen—2
In the Athenæum Numbers 406, 407, 409, Quetelet papers are given, & I think facts there mentioned about proportion of sexes, at birth & causes.a 3



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aIn the Athenæum . . . causes.] added brown ink
  • 1. William Yarrell: personal communication.
  • 2. See Hunter 1837:38 (Account of the free-martin), 'It is a fact known, and I believe almost universally understood, that when a cow brings forth two calves, and one of them a bull-calf and the other to appearance a cow, that the cow-calf is unfit for propagation, but the bull-calf grows up into a very proper bull. Such a calf-cow is called in this country a FREE-MARTIN. . .' From the context, this reference to Owen's edition of Hunter's Animal Oeconomy may be based on a personal communication from Yarrell.
  • 3. Quetelet 1835b. Since this reference to the Athenaeum review of Quetelet 1835a is in brown ink, it was written after 16 October 1838, very likely during the early Notebook E period, post E26. It was not until after the 28 September 1838 reading of Malthus (D134−35) that Darwin's new interest in populations led him to pursue Quetelet's work.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 153
Notebook D
D 153
1838.09.11

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If an animal breeds young her growth is immediately checked— the vis formativa goes entirely to the offspring— this is clearly the converse of annual being rendered biennial—1 the hardness of life in female Moth &c Mr Y.2 says that Macleay considers the house bug, as a female which have larvæ which have bred before the vis formativa had completed them— (but this argument is VERY WEAK without knowing whether if kept they would have wings.—).— Seep p. 84.3 Hens «like»— Cocks from effect of breeding in & in.— Mr Yarrell does not know of any case of old Male. becoming like female, though many
  • 1. See B2, D165, D176, and E184.
  • 2. William Yarrell: personal communication.
  • 3. Presumably D84.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 154
Notebook D
D 154
1838.09.11

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of old female becoming like cocks.—1 It is very singular. so many Gallinaceous birds have cock & hen plumage so different, yet the Cassowary & Guinea Fowl cannot be distinguished.—

A capon will sit upon eggs, as well as, & often better than a female.— this is full of interest; for it shows latent instincts even in brain of male.— Every animal surely is hermaphrodite—2 (as is seen in fe plumage of hybrid birds)
  • 1. See C215 and D114. Yarrell 1827, carrying on from Hunter's 'An account of an extraordinary pheasant', claims that the phenomenon is not restricted to old females. The Owen edition refers to Yarrell's paper (Hunter 1837:48).
  • 2. See Hunter 1837:46−47 (An account of an extraordinary pheasant), 'To bring the foregoing observations into one point of view, I here beg leave to remark, that in animals just born, or very young, there are no peculiarities to distinguish one sex from the other, exclusive of what relates to the organs of generation, which can only be in those who have external parts; and that towards the age of maturity the discriminating changes before mentioned begin to appear; the male then losing that resemblance he had to the female in various secondary properties; but that in all animals which are not of any distinct sex, called hermaphrodites, there is no such alteration taking place in their form when they arrive at that age.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 155
Notebook D
D 155
1838.09.11

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After animal has copulated., though no offspring, Milk sometimes comes in Mammæ & even when bitch is in heat.— Yarrell believes Gestation is always some multiple of seven— if woman does not menstruate in the month, she will in 5 weeks.—

{
A Bull is never taken from his own field to bulla a cow. — — a dog if led in string will not.—
some of the tigers.— cat, though caterwhalling. & put into female, when muzzled, he is disabled.— so Elephant in confinement, & so imagination in Man, has strange effect.—




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ato bull] 'b' over 'c'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 156
Notebook D
D 156
1838.09.11

Editorial symbols


Directly a Capon is cut, it increases in size prodigiously
Animal œconomy by, Hunter. (edited by Owen) p. 34.— Owen classifies Hermaphrodites.1
Cryptandrous. (only female organs visible). Oyster. cystic Entozoa.
Echinoderms. Acalephes. Polyps. Sponges
Heautandrous, male organs formed to fecundate female (as in plants)2
Cirrhipeds rotifers, trematode & cestoid Entozoa
Allotriandrous.3 or M Mollusca, with pectinibranchiate order—4 the Annelida.
All others, animals, «are Diœecous as» Cephalopods, Pectinibranchiate molluscs.— insects. spider crabs.— (all these however do not require coition every generation)5— Epizoa & the nematoid Entozoa—
Therefore highness in scale has no «constant» relation to separtion of sexes, as may be
  • 1. Hunter 1837:34−35 (Account of the free-martin). Owen's classification is given in a note on the following passage by Hunter: 'The natural hermaphrodite belongs to the inferior and more simple genera of animals, of which there is a much greater number than of the more perfect; and as animals become more complicated, have more parts, and each part is more confined to its particular use, separation of the two necessary powers for generation seems also to take place.' Owen's note begins: 'The animals in which the organs of the two sexes are naturally combined in the same individual are confined to the invertebrate division, and are most common in the molluscous and radiate classes. If the term hermaphrodite may be applied to those species which propagate without the concourse of the sexes, but in which no distinct male organ can be detected, as well as to those in which both male and female organs are present in the same body, then there may be distinguished three kinds of hermaphroditism.' Darwin's abstract of the rest of the note runs from 'Cryptandrous' to 'nematoid Entozoa'.
  • 2. The information in parentheses is not in Owen's note.
  • 3. Darwin leaves out Owen's definition (Hunter 1837:35): 'the male organs are so disposed as not to fecundate the ova of the same body, but where the concourse of two individuals is required, notwithstanding the co-existence in each of the organs of the two sexes.'
  • 4. Owen (Hunter 1837:35) has 'with the exception of the pectibranchiate order'.
  • 5. The information in parentheses is not in Owen's note.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 157
Notebook D
D 157
1838.09.11

Editorial symbols


seen in Monoœcious & Diœcious plants.— NB. in Heautandrous animals are is there gradation of structure leading to supposition, that the Cryptandrous are really, Heautandrous.— How is fecundation effected in latter; are it «organs»a open to water? Would not Ferns according to this doctrine be considered as really cryptandrous, & they have hybrids— this is most important support to my views— Seeing sexes separate in some of the lowest tribes, leads one to suppose still more that they must in effect be so in all.— 2 NB. In Pectinibr Mollusca.— «or Cephalopoda» are there abortive traces of other «sexual» organs; for if so, separtion of sexes very simple.—1 as in plants even in same genus some diœcious & some monoœcious— (& cultivation might make one set of organs barren in one plant & not in other), Hunter asks p. 36 is thought by Owen to ask. whether a Heautandrous animal is evidently actually split in two— keeping sexes separate. Owen say such view worthy of a Lamarckian.—2 Mine is much simpler.—



aare it «organs»] 'are' over 'is'
  • 1. See the complemental males case developed in Living Cirripedia 2:584−86.
  • 2. Hunter 1837:36. Hunter's note: 'Quere: Is there ever, in the genera of animals that are natural hermaphrodites, a separation of the two parts forming distinct sexes? If there is, it may account for the distinction of sexes ever having happenedc.' Owen's notec: 'The separation of the two sexual organs from one another in the same body occurs in many of that class of natural hermaphrodites which we have termed 'allotriandrous'; and there are many examples in the Hunterian collection showing the fact. What, therefore, Mr. Hunter seems here to refer to is a spontaneous fission of the body in the interval separating the two sexual parts, so that one portion of the body shall contain the male and the other the female organs. Some annellides, as the Naїs. exhibit the phenomenon of spontaneous fission, but the separation never occurs so as to divide the two sexual organs from one another, and appropriate one to each division; and were even such an occurrence to be supposed ever to take place, the application of the fact to explain the occurrence of the distinct sexes in the naturally dioecious classes seems more worthy of a speculatist of the Lamarckian school than of a sober observer of Nature.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 158
Notebook D
D 158
1838.09.11

Editorial symbols


Hunter shows almost all animals subject to Hermaphroditism,—1 those organs which perform nearly same function in both sexes.— are never double, only modified.2 those which perform very different, are both present in every shade of perfection3—How came it nipples are «though» abortive, are so plain in Man, & yet no trace of abortive womb, or ovarium.— or testicles in female.—4 the add presence of both testes & ovaria in Hermaphrodite,— but not of pœnis & clitoris,5 shows to my mind.— , that both are present in every animals, but unequally developed.— surely analogy of molluscs.6 & neuter bee would shew this—7 (Do any male animals give suck)—But this not distinctly stated by Hunter.— Do testes, & ovaria when
  • 1. Hunter 1837:35−36, 'The unnatural hermaphrodite, I believe, now and then occurs in every tribe of animals having distinct sexes, but is more common in some than in others; and is to be met with, in all its gradations, from the distinct sex to the most exact combination of male and female organs.'
  • 2. Hunter 1837:36, 'There is one part common to both the male and female organs of generation in all animals which have the sexes distinct: in the one sex it is called the penis, in the other the clitoris; its specific use in both is to continue, by its sensibility, the action excited in coition till the paroxysm alters the sensation. . . . 'Though the unnatural hermaphrodite be a mixture of both sexes, and may possess the parts peculiar to each in perfection, yet it cannot possess in perfection that part which is common to both.'
  • 3. Hunter 1837:35. Hunter's text: 'The unnatural hermaphroditeb, I believe, now and then occurs in every tribe of animals having distinct sexes, but is more common in some than in others;*' Hunter's note *: 'Quere: Is there ever, in the genera of animals that are natural hermaphrodites, a separation of the two parts forming distinct sexes? If there is, it may account for the distinction of sexes ever having happened.' Owen's note b: 'The unnatural hermaphrodites may be divided into those in which the parts peculiar to the two sexes are blended together in different proportions, and the whole body participates of a neutral character, tending towards the male and female as the respective organs predominate, and into those in which the male and female organs occupy respectively separate halves of the body, and impress on each lateral moiety the characteristics of the sex.' Darwin (see D174, note 6) substitutes 'abortive hermaphrodite' for 'unnatural hermaphrodite'.
  • 4. See Hunter 1837:36−37, 'Although it may not be necessary, to constitute an hermaphrodite ... so readily as the scrotum.' Darwin's comment reflects his reading, but not abstracting, this passage.
  • 5. Hunter 1837:36−37, 'Although it may not be necessary, to constitute an hermaphrodite, that the parts peculiar to the one sex should be blended with those of the other, in the same way that the penis is with the clitoris, yet this sometimes takes place in parts whose use in the distinct sexes is somewhat similar, the testicle and ovarium sometimes forming one body, without the properties of either.'
  • 6. Refers to D157 above, 'In Pectinibr Mollusca.— «or Cephalopoda» are there abortive traces of other «sexual» organs; for if so, separation of sexes very simple.—'
  • 7. See Hunter 1837:453−54 (Observations on Bees). 'The queen and the working bees are so much alike that the latter would seem to be females on a different scale: . . .'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 40e
Notebook D: 105, 106, 151, 152, 159, 160 (excised pages)
D 159e
1838.09.11

Editorial symbols


they first appear occupy their proper positions,— this would be argument for developement of either.—1 (Mammæ or sheath of Horses pœnis reduced to extreme degree of abortion).— Insecta.— hermaphrodite, being not only dimidiate, but quarter-grown seems to show whole body imbued with possibility of becoming either sex.—2 In my theory I must allude to separtion of sexes as very great difficulty, then give speculation to show that it is not overwhelming.—a 3

Seeing in Gardens of Hybrids between Common & Silver Pheasant, one like cock & other like Hen.— one doubts whether they are not Hermaphrodites, like J. Hunters. Free Martenb 4

N.B. the common mule must often have been dissected5



athey first . . . overwhelming.—] crossed pencil
bSeeing . . . Marten] '17' added brown crayon
  • 1. Hunter 1837:36−37, 'Although it may not be necessary, to constitute an hermaphrodite, that the parts peculiar to one sex should be blended with those of the other, . . . yet this sometimes takes place in parts whose use in the distinct sexes is somewhat similar, the testicle and ovarium sometimes forming one body, without the properties of either. This compounded [abortive] part in those animals that have the testicle and ovarium differently situated is generally found in the place allotted for the ovarium; but in such animals as have the testicle and ovarium in the same situation, as the bird tribe, the compound of the two, when it occurs, will also be found in that common situation.'
  • 2. Hunter 1837:35, continuation of Owen's note b cited above in note D158−3, 'This latter and very singular kind of hermaphroditism has hitherto been found only in insects and crustaceans.'Owen cites reports of 'dimidiate hermaphrodites' by Alexander MacLeay. He also cites Westwood's report of both dimidiate and 'quartered hermaphrodites': 'a specimen of the stag-beetle (Lucanus Cervus), in which the left jaw and right elytrum are masculine, and the right jaw and left elytrum feminine.'
  • 3. In his published work, Darwin was frequently to adopt this argumentative strategy. See Origin, chap. 6, (Difficulties on the theory). Darwin's theory of separation of sexes is developed in Natural Selection, chap. 3 (which was not included in the Origin) and later in Crossing.
  • 4. This analogy to abortive hermaphrodites is reflected in Darwin's 'Theory of abortive hybrids' (D15).
  • 5. Darwin is becoming interested in conducting anatomical dissections and hybridisation experiments of his own to test his views on generation, including those on the separation of sexes. See D165 ('splitting animal experiment' and the contemporaneous list of queries and experiments in D180 and DIBC, and possibly the E15 strawberry experiment).
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 40f
Notebook D: 105, 106, 151, 152, 159, 160 (excised pages)
D 160e
1838.09.16

Editorial symbols


Zoolog. Garden. Sept 16.〞Hybrid between Silver & Common Pheasant. Male bird, said to be infertile.— spurs rather smaller than in ma silver male— Head like silver except in not having tuft,— back like do.— but the black lines on each feather instead of coming to point [Fig.] are more rounded. [Fig.]& much broader., & more ro «three, I believe instead of» two lines.— «faintly edged with reddish brown» black marks on tail much blacker «broader.— » Breast red like Common pheasant.— lower part of breast, each feather is fine metallic green. from with tip & part of shaft metallic green.— This green doubtless is effect of Metallic hue of silver pheasant.1 yet why green? & not purple?— legs pale coloured.— In the back feathers, we have character very different from either parent bird—
  • 1. See D147, note 2 on metallic tints.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 161
Notebook D
D 161
1838.09.16-1838.09.25

Editorial symbols


Hunters Animal Œconomy. (by Owen) p. 44.
Classification of Monsters. (1) From præternatural situation of parts (2) addition of parts, (3) deficiency of parts (4) combined addition & deficiency of parts, as in Hermaphrodites,1 (shows my doctrine of Hermaphrodite differs from Hunter)2— Hunter (p. 45) observes “ every species has a disposition to deviate from Nature in a manner peculiar to itself ” 3 Is this so Each part not of each species not similarly subject— Divides sexual marks into primary & secondary, the latter only being developed, when the first are become of use Great characteristic of male greater strength, (p 45) & that strength4
In speaking of generation alway put female first5

Will not even a fruit tree or rose degenerate during its life so that successive buds do differ— any variety is not handed down. but is handed down for some generationsa



aWill not . . . some generations] triple scored both margins
  • 1. Hunter 1837:44. See Owen's note a (note D115−1), which quotes Hunter MSS.
  • 2. According to Darwin's doctrine the ancestors of both plants and animals were hermaphroditic, and the various grades of separate sexes arose by abortion (deficiency) of parts.
  • 3. Hunter 1837:45.
  • 4. Hunter 1837:45, 'The varieties which are found in the parts of generation themselves I shall call the first or principal marks, being originally formed in them, and belonging equally to both sexes; all others depending upon these I shall call secondary, as not taking place till the first are becoming of use, and being principally, although not entirely, in the male. 'One of the most general marks is, the superior strength of make in the male; and another circumstance, perhaps equally so, is this strength being directed to one part more than another, which part is that most immediately employed in fighting.' See D113.
  • 5. The female is to be put first because she tends to show only the primary sexual marks and is thus most like the species' ancestor.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 162
Notebook D
D 162
1838.09.16-1838.09.25

Editorial symbols


Theory of sexes (woman makes, bud, man puts primordial vivifying principle) one individual secretes two substances, although organs for the double purpose are not distinguished. —yet may be presumed from hybridity of ferns)1 afterwards they can be seen distinct. (in diœcious plants are there abortive sexual organs?): they then become so related to each other, as never to be able to impregnate themselves (this never happens in plants2 «only in subordinate manner in the plants which have male & female flower on same stem.—» so that Molluscous hermaphroditism takes place.—3 thus one organ in each becomes obliterated, & sexes as in Vertebrate tak place.— Every man & woman is hermaphrodite:— developed instincts of Capon. & power of assuming male plumage in females.,4 & female plumage in castrated male.— «Men giving milk—»
  • 1. See Martens 1838 cited in B235.
  • 2. Much of Darwin's later work in floral anatomy was devoted to elucidating the complex mechanisms that prevent self-fertilization in plants. Here he is expressing the common view of the time that monoecious flowers are self-fertilizers. Hence, this passage marks a critical point: he has developed a theory for the separation of sexes, but does not recognise its implications for flowering plants. See Henslow 1837.
  • 3. See D156−57. Mollusca are dioecious.
  • 4. See D96 and D114 on old females assuming male plumage.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 163
Notebook D
D 163
1838.09.25

Editorial symbols


Sept. 25th Young man at Willis «Grt. Marlborough Str», Hair dresser, assures me he has known many cases of bitch going to mongrel, & all subsequent litters having a throw of this mongrel.— I did not ask the question.— His bitch will not take «& if she did take, probably would not be fertile» without she know & LIKES HIM & then is actually obliged to be held.— like she wolf of Hunter.—1 young take distemper very readily & are subject to fits.— «there is great difference between hybrids & inter se offspring in latter being unhealthy.—» males «bred in & in» never lose passion.
(Mem: so it was said little cock «yet very odd loosing visible powers» in Zoolog Gardens. & Kings at Otaheite2) Think Last litters are considered the most valuable. because smallest sized dogs.— one litter big & then second small & so.— Says, there is breed of Fowls called everlasting layer— . or Polish breed. (he thinks
  • 1. Hunter 1837:323 (Observations tending to show that the wolf, jackal, and dog, are all of the same species), '. . . Mr. Gough having an idea of obtaining a breed from wild animals, as monkies, leopards, &c, he was desirous to have the wolf lined by some dog; but she would not allow any dog to come near her, probably from being always chained, and not accustomed to be with dogs. She was held, however, while a greyhound dog lined her, and they fastened together exactly like the dog and bitch.'
  • 2. See B196. 'Tahitian kings, would hardly produce from Incestuous intercourse.', which contradicts the 'Young man at Willis'.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 164
Notebook D
D 164
1838.09.25

Editorial symbols


half pheasant, half fowls.— eggs fertile, but parent bird will never sit on them.—

May be just worth remembering that ovarium of women (Paper in Vol I of Irish Royal Academy) have contained perfect teeth & hair—1 showing fœtus has gone on growing— I believe same has happened in boys bodies.—

Lavaters. Essays on Phy. transl by Holcroft Vol I. p. 195. says children resemble parents in their bodies “ It is a fact equally well known, that we observe in the temper, especially of the youngest children, a striking resemblance similarity to the temper of the
  • 1. See Cleghorn 1787.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 165
Notebook D
D 165
1838.09.25

Editorial symbols


father, or of the mother, or sometimes of both.” 1 If L. can be trusted, this is Lord. Moretons law.— “ How often do we find in the son, the character, constitution, & most of the moral qualities of the father!. In how many daughters does the character of the mother revive! Or the character of the mother in the son, & of the father in the daughters!2 This last remark good. because showing probably not education.—

{
Cannot I find some animal with definite life & split it, & see whether it retains same length of life— like Golden Pippen trees!
How is this with buds of plants, does annual give buds. — life may be thus prolonged bud being formed & one part dying for great length of time.—



  • 1. Lavater 1804, 1:195, 'It is likewise a fact universally acknowledged, that new born children, as well as those of riper growth greatly resemble their father or mother, or sometimes both, as well in the formation of the body as in particular features. . . . It is a fact, equally well known, that we observe, in the temper, especially of the youngest children, a striking similarity to the temper of the father, or of the mother, or sometimes both.'
  • 2. Lavater 1804, 1:195, 'How often do we find in the son the character, constitution, and most of the moral qualities of the father! In how many a daughter does the character of the mother revive! Or the character of the mother in the son, and of the father in the daughter!'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 166
Notebook D
D 166
1838.09.25

Editorial symbols


There is probably law of nature that any organ. which is not used is absorbed.— this law acting against heredetary tendency causes abortive organs.— the origin of this law is part of the reproductive system.— of that knowledge of the part, of what is good for the whole.—1 if cut off nerves in snail. (Encyclop of Anat & Phys) can make a head;2 the other part may surely absorb a useless member.— in fact they do it in disease & injury.— The sympathy of part is probably part of same general law, which makes two animals out of one
  • 1. See the parallel comment in D159 'whole body imbued with the possibility of becoming either sex'.
  • 2. Jones 1836−39, 2:402, 'If . . . the head is cut quite off, a new one will succeed: the new head however, does not at first contain all the parts of the old one, but they are gradually developed. . .'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 167
Notebook D
D 167
1838.09.25

Editorial symbols


& heals piece of skin.— if the tail knows how to make a head. & head & tail, & the belly both head & tail,—no wonder there should be sympathy in human frame.—
«one of» The final cause of sexes to obliterate differences. final cause of this because the great changes of nature are slow. if animals became adapted to every minute change, they would not be fitted to the slow great changes really in progress.—1
Annals of Natural History. 1838. p. 123. Ehrenberg. makes gemmation in animals very different from that of plants. (though latter does sometimes occur in animals). latter the division taking place from outside inwards. & in animals from inside to the outside.—2 is this not owing simply to more importance of internal organs in animals.  One «invisible» animalcule in four days could form 2. cubic stone. like that of Billin.—3
  • 1. See B1, note 5.
  • 2. Ehrenberg 1839 (No. 8, October 1838), 2:123, 'A vegetable cell apparently capable of self division always become one, or contemporaneously many exterior warts (gems) without any change in its interior. An animal which is capable of division first doubles the inner organs, and subsequently decreases exteriorly in size. Self division proceeds from the interior towards the exterior, from the centre to the periphery; gemmation, which also occurs in animals, proceeds from the exterior towards the interior, and forms first a wart, which then gradually becomes organized.' Darwin added this passage and those in notes D167−3 and D169−1 after reading the October issue of Annals of Natural History.
  • 3. Ehrenberg 1839 (No. 8, October 1838), 2:123, '. . . an imperceptible corpuscle can become in four days 170 billions, or as many single individual animalcules as contained in 2 cubic feet of the stone from the polishing slate of Bilin.' This passage, added after the 28 September reading of Malthus (D134−135), reflects Darwin's new attention to superfecundity.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 168
Notebook D
D 168
1838.09.25-[1838.09.27]

Editorial symbols


Generation— V. p. 152
It is very singular the same difference from parental stock having been repeated several times, that it becomes fixed in blood.— Looking at ovum of mother & ovum in offspring, as similar to the several ova in mother. (with only difference of time) is the above law anyways connected with the case of successive copulation impresses offspring more & more with the added «like Lord Moretons case & Dr. Andrew Smith,» difference.—1 If A. B. C. D. E be offspring «animals»: if «x» male impresses ovum of in A, «with some peculiarity» that in (B) to a slighta «some» degree, & likewise ovum in (B) an C that in (C) «in lesser degree» — Then when (C) unites with Male (X)b «assume that every peculiarity has a tendency to descend to several generations»



ato a slight] 'to'over 'in'
bIf A. B. C. D. E . . . Male (X)] heavily crossed
  • 1. See D152: 'Mr Yarrell says it is well known that in breeding very pure South Down that the ewe must never be put to any other breed else all the lambs will deteriorate.—Lord Moreton's Case.—'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 169
Notebook D
D 169
1838.09.25-[1838.09.27]

Editorial symbols


If A & B be two animals which have some peculiarity for first time & if their D & E «all their offspring» inherit the same peculiarity in lesser degree Ca. & theirs again in lesser degree—now if the tw second race both have this peculiarity strongly; they transmit with same force as first pair, but to this tendency is added that the 3d tendency from first pair.— Now if two of third pair of same peculiarity breed they will have same influence as first pair + tendency they inherited from second pair, + the influence they themselves inherit./1
Annals of Natural History .p. 96. Vol Ib. Notice the Syngnathus, or Pipe fish the male of which receives young «eggs» in belly.—2 analogous to men having mammæ.—



adegree C] 'C' over 'G'
bVol I] 'I'over 'II'
  • 1. The thrust of Darwin's argument is to show how the proven facts of generation (superfoetation, male impression, and crossing) cumulatively give the perpetuation of hereditary change required for the formation of new species.
  • 2. This passage was added in the considerable space Darwin left when he first filled D168−169. Fries 1839a (No. 8, October 1838), 2:96−97, 'The discovery of the remarkable peculiarity existing in the sexes, by which the males are not only destined as protectors of the eggs and of the birth, but are also for this purpose endowed with a peculiar organ in which the eggs are deposited, developed, and hatched, and in which the young in their tender state find a sure protection, has obtained for this genus of late a greater attention than would else have probably been the case.' Passage scored and 'deposited, developed, and hatched' underlined. See also E57 and T25−26.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 170
Notebook D
D 170
1838.09.25-[1838.09.27]

Editorial symbols


There is an analogy between caterpillars with respect to moths, & monkey & men.— each man passess through its caterpillar state. the monkey represents this state.—

When it is said. that difference between bud & seed, that latter carries with stock of food.— the generalization begins low.— it goes through transformation, nearly independently of its parent & therefore wants independent supply of food.— is real. difference— but this does not apply to potato.—
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 171
Notebook D
D 171
1838.09.25-[1838.09.27]

Editorial symbols


With respect to offspring being determined by imagination of Mother.— We see in a litter every possible variation from being very near mother, & some very near father.— now if one of these staid in the womb, when it came out. it might partake of shade of fathers character.— according to this view more semen to one child, more like father.— stuff.!—1
  • 1. See Morton 1821, which Darwin first cited at B181.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 172
Notebook D
D 172
1838.09.25-[1838.09.27]

Editorial symbols


How much opposed. the Quagga case appears to that of «2» dog begetting different puppies out of same mother.—

The view that man & «or cock» pheasant &c is abortive hermaphrodite is supported by change which takes place in old age of female assuming plumage of cock, & beards growing on old women = Stags horns & testes curious instances of corelation in structure = Neuter bee having botha sexes abortive fact of same tendency. — Mammæ in man. having given milk. — testis & ovaria

The following views show that transmission of mutilation impossible.— it should be observed that transmission bears no relation to utility of change— hence harelips heredetary, disease. extinction.

Animals in domestication (even Elephant) not breeding— remarkable

Athenæum 1838. p 653. Ehrenbergh thinks multiplication by division only is developement of gemma.—1



aboth] 'b' over 'n'
  • 1. Ehrenberg 1838b:653, '. . . he believed the process of multiplication by division to be merely the developement of a gemma or bud, a view which would much simplify our ideas concerning that singular mode of propagation.'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 41a
Notebook D: 173, 174 (excised pages)
D 173e
1838.09.25-[1838.09.27]

Editorial symbols


The manner in which Frogs copulate & fish shows how simply instinctive the feeling of other sex being present is— it also shows that semen. must actually reach the ovum.— [Why in making a bud, which is to pass through all transformations, should there need two organs; whilst in common bud there is no such need.— one would one suppose that the vital portion ⸮nerves? passed through transformation, & was received into bud matured by female; ] such view no ways explains Ld. Moretons case: without the nervous matter consists of infinite number of globules: generally sufficient for one birth or rather] It should be observed that the constant necessity for change. in process by generation applies only the more complicated animals.]a p. 310 She wolf took dog. but had such aversion to it, that she was held Hunters Eœconomyb 1 So with inter-breeding as told by WilliscQd



aThe manner . . . complicated animals.]>] crossed pencil
bp. 310 . . . Eœconomy] '17' added brown crayon
cSo with ... by Willis] added pencil
dQ] added brown ink in circle.
  • 1. Hunter 1837:310. See Natural Selection: 427, n.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 176
Notebook D
D 176
[1838.09.25-1838.09.27] or [1838.09.11.after, up to 1838.10.02]

Editorial symbols


Proved facts relating to Generation1
One copulation may impregnate one or many offspring.—2 it affects the subsequent offspring, when though other male may have copulated.— two animals may unite & each have offspring by same mother.— one animal will fecundate female for several births, & even produce fertile offspring— DESIRE LOST when male & female too closely related:3 this most important with regard to theory, showing generation connected with whole system, «as if there was, a superabundance of life, like tendency to budding, which wishes to throw itself off.—» as might be inferred from annual plant being prolonged till it has bred.— Offspring like both father & mother, or very close to either.— Male & female as fœtus one sex; & therefore both capable of propagating, but one is rendered abortive
  • 1. In the edition of Notebook D, D174−175 have been placed after D179 to preserve the writing order of Darwin's attempt to synthesize his views on generation. In the original the pages are numbered sequentially.
  • 2. Note the mention of aphids in D175. In B181 Darwin made the analogy between parthenogenesis and telegony explicit: 'See paper . . . by Ld Moreton, where mare was influenced in this cross to after births, like aphides.—' (Morton 1821).
  • 3. It is notable that in Notebook D, which spans the major part of Darwin's courtship of his cousin Emma Wedgwood, Darwin pays particular attention to evidence that inbreeding leads to loss of sexual desire.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 177
Notebook D
D 177
[1838.09.25-1838.09.27] or [1838.09.11.after, up to 1838.10.02]

Editorial symbols


as far as parturition is concerned.—1 Generation being means to propagate & perpetuate differences (of body, mind & constitution)2 is the end frustrated, when near relations, & therefore those very close are bred into each other.—  This is somehow connecteda (This seems case, for by careful observing cattle can be bred in & in.3)— [The loss of passion in hybrids. perhaps connected with this same case (& not merely as I have stated it) it is certainly very remarkable that too much difference should produce same effect as too little.— in (latter case female often takes males but does not produce) tendency to deformity ⸮this doesb not happen with hybrids?] Plants must stand much breeding in & in4 (those which have solitary flower) exotics brought from foreign country.5 (annuals & so must those forms which are produced by budding «only» as cryptogamia & hydras,— (this repugnance to breeding in & in seems connected with more developed forms6) Study buds— gemmæ— & monocotyledenous, do those which are Monocotyledenous have many flowers same Spath, as they have only one bud.—7



aThis is somehow connected] added
b⸮this does] 't' over '⸮'
  • 1. See D174 'abortive hermaphrodite'.
  • 2. As in D174 Darwin's language recurs to the opening pages of Notebook B.
  • 3. See discussion of the Chillingham cattle in D48.
  • 4. Darwin is operating under the same assumption as in D162 that hermaphrodite plants self fertilise. His comment that 'Plants must stand much breeding in & in' suggests he recognises that hermaphroditic flowering plants pose a difficulty to his general theory of sexes. This language is transformed into the view that although organisms can stand much inbreeding, there must be occasional outcrossing (see D175, note 1 below).
  • 5. Their small initial populations would require close inbreeding
  • 6. See B34.
  • 7. Thus they would be all alike and equivalent to solitary flowers.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 178
Notebook D
D 178
[1838.09.25-1838.09.27] or [1838.09.11.after, up to 1838.10.02]

Editorial symbols


Every individual fœtus would reproduce its kind was it not for the necessity of some change.— Without some small change in form. ideosyncrasy or dispositions were added or substracted at each, or in several generations, the process would be similar to budding. which is not object of generation.— therefore passions fail.— In fruit trees no doubt there is tendency to propagate the whole difference of parent, tree, but it fails.— therefore «each» seedling of one apple ought to differ from those of other.— The upshot of all this is that effect of Male is to impress some difference: to make the bud of the woman, not a bud in every respect.—1 [Is this connected with the physical differences in almost all Male animals?] If the male «in the course of some generations» has gained some difference «from what it received» (for it is probable that breeding in & in would not be deletereous if the relative had come from different quarters) then it causes to a secretion of something someways different from himself, for it should be observed that from
  • 1. See Erasmus Darwin 1794−96, 1:519 and note B1−2.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 179
Notebook D
D 179
[1838.09.25-1838.09.27] or [1838.09.11.after, up to 1838.10.02] & also [1838.07.15-1838.09.24]

Editorial symbols


Books to read
Buffon Suites de.—1
Horse & Cattle2 Library of Useful Knowledge
Bell's Quadrupedsa 3
the effects of breeding in, it is not merely the too close animals, which will not breed, but the female at least (⸮male?) looses all appetite.— It is the comparison of each animal with itself «ancestors», & not its comparison «of difference» with other sex. = The highest bred Blood-hound. would be infertile with highest bred of other ⸮breed. = Therefore it is not really breeding in & in, but «on» breeding animals that have neither varied from their stock, for to breed (as Sir J. Sebright urges?4) one with opposed characters is by impliance to breed two which have each varied from parent stock.— The very theory of generation being the passing through whole series of forms to acquire differences: if none are added object failed, & then by that corelation of structure desire fails. Every individual except by incestuous marriage has acquired from father some differences. V. Supra



aBooks . . . Quadrupeds] crossed
  • 1. See note CIBC−4.
  • 2. Youatt 1831, 1834.
  • 3. T. Bell 1837
  • 4. Sebright 1809, see C133.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 208: 41b
Notebook D: 173, 174 (excised pages)
D 174e
[1838.09.25-1838.09.27] or [1838.09.11.after, up to 1838.10.02]

Editorial symbols


v. infra p 179, continued from Is a flower bud produced by union of two common buds??? Amongst buds each one exactly like its parent. but these buds do not procreate & all alike in one parent or tree, (but not in other trees.—1 — Why should there be a necessity that there should be something «each time» added to that kind of generation, which typifies the whole course of change from simplest form.— (Because by this process it separates those differences which are in harmony with all its previous changes, which mutilations are not2). but why should it demand some further change?— Man properly is hermaphrodite (hence monstrosities tend that way3 «& from frequency of this tendency all mammalia must long have so existed.» with double union.— At present I can only say the whole object being to acquire differences «indifferently of what kind, either progressive improvement or deteriorate4» that object failing, generation fails.— How completely circumstances «alone» make changes or species!!5 [The view of In each Man or mammalia being abortive hermaphrodite simplifys case much;6 & originally her each hermaphrodite being simple (Are not Coniferous trees generally diœcious oldest forms)



page crossed pencil
  • 1. See D177: 'do those which are moncotyledenous have many flowers same Spath, as they have only one bud.—'
  • 2. This question was Darwin's point of departure in the opening 'Zoonomical' pages of Notebook B, see especially B2−4.
  • 3. Darwin is applying the reasoning of Hunter's law. See D57, note 1; D112, note 1; and Hunter 1837:44−45.
  • 4. Note the independence of variation from utility.
  • 5. Note that Darwin emphasises the relativity of adaptation in this passage
  • 6. See D15 and notes D158−3, D159−4.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 175
Notebook D
D 175
[1838.09.25-1838.09.27] or [1838.09.11.after, up to 1838.10.02]

Editorial symbols


why are twin in man more like «each other» than twins «or triplets &c &c in» in litter. Why is there some law about sexes of twins in former case.— (many monster are really twins.)—

It is absolutely necessary that some «but not great» difference (for even brother & sister are somewhat different) should be added to each individual before he can procreate.1 these changes may be effect of differences of parents, or external circumstances during life.—if the circumstances which induce «which must be external» change are always of one nature species is formed if not.— the changes oscillate backwards & forwards & are individual differences (hence every individual is different). (All this agrees well with my view of those «forms» slightly favoured, getting the upper hand. ] & forming species)—2 [Aphides having fertile offspring without coition or addition of differences. shows that difference need not be added EACH TIME. but after some time3]

What kind of plants are Monoœcious or diœcious.— very curious how this was superinduced? (Surely all are really diœcious..) only simple form of life are monoœcious.



aIt is . . . external circumstances] double scored
bcircumstances which] carat deleted before 'which'
  • 1. This is the first formal statement of what is known in the botanical literature as the Knight-Darwin law (Goebel 1909:421). See D162, note 2 and D177, note 4. Darwin's views clearly stem from his theory of separate sexes, which derives from his analysis of Owen's notes on Hunter 1837:34−35 in D156−159. It is rooted in B4−5.
  • 2. The selectionist tone is striking, which may date Darwin's essay 'Proved facts relating to Generation' (D176−179, D174−175) to after the D134−135 reading of Malthus. This would be consistent with viewing the independence of variation and adaptive ability noted in D174 as first fruits of Darwin's new theory of natural selection. If so the passage could have been written as late as 16 October 1838. The passages referred to in notes D177−2 and D174−2 are so strongly reminiscent of early Notebook B that they may reflect a rereading of his 'Zoonomia arguements'. In which case, 'my view of those «forms» slightly favoured, getting the upper hand ...& forming species' in D175 has to be compared with 'variety of ostrich, Petise may not be well adapted, & thus perish out, or on other hand like Orpheus. being favourable many might be produced.—' of B37−38.
  • 3. See D178 'small change . . . added or subtracted at each, or in several generations'.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: 180
Notebook D
D 180
[1838.07.15]-[1838.09.25.before]

Editorial symbols


Will ova of fishes & Mollusca «& Frogs» pass through birds stomachs & live?1

In Muscovy ducks do young take most after father or Mother according as they are crossed? & How is it with China & Common Geese «how are their instincts?» «Chineses & Common Pigs.—»

Experimentize on crossing of the several species of wild fowla in Z of India «with our common ones» in Zoolog. Gardens;b

Buffalo & common cattle— Esquimaux (& Australian) dogs with common dogs—

Ask my father to look out for instances of Avitism

Examine English weeds in Hot. Houses will they flower

Make Hybrids with moths, where fecundation can be made artificially.—





awild fowl] carat before 'fowl'
bExperimentize . . . Gardens;] crossed
cAsk my . . . avitism] pencil
  • 1. D180 and DIBC comprise a list of queries and ideas for experiments and observations for Darwin and others to pursue. This list was begun, and from the uniform hand may have been completed, before Darwin reached D179. Lack of space forced him to go back to a blank page before D176 to continue 'Proved facts relating to Generation'. He chose D174 and D175, which may have been the only pages left in Notebook D. See Questions & Experiments and Darwin's breeding questionnaires where this method is extensively developed: Correspondence 2:446−49, Appendix v (printed questionnaire); 2:187−89 (Ford replies); 2:190−92 (Tollet replies). See also 2:70−71 (Wynne questions); 2:179−81, 201−2 (Herbert questions); 2:182−84, 202−3 (Herbert replies).
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: ibc
Notebook D
Inside Back Cover
[1838.07.15]-[1838.09.25.before]

Editorial symbols




Are hybrids pintail & common ducks. similar inter se? Zoolog. Gardensa
Are the hybrids of those species. which cross & are fertile heterogenous?
When bird fanciers say the throw of two varieties is uncertain do they mean they cannot tell first result., or that «hybrid» breed is uncertainb
Is there any peculiarity or variation common to any zoophyte «born in succession» which is not transmitted by generation??
Is it «chiefly» in high. bred dogs ie. (bred in & in) that one copulation with other dogs renders subsequent progeny faulty. Does male fail in passion.—
Disposition of half bred Cattle at Cinbermere? How is Jackall & dog at Z. Gardensc



aAre . . . Gardens] crossed
bWhen bird . . . uncertain] crossed
cHow is Jackall . . . Gardens] crossed
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Cambridge University Library DAR 123: bc
Notebook D
Back Cover
[1838.07.15]
Reproduced with the permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin
Higher resolution images available from Cambridge Digital Library
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History