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  On the Origin of Species, 1859: Surviving Manuscript Leaves
July 1858 - March 1859

Transcribed and edited by: Randal Keynes & David Kohn

Manuscript and Union Approach



It has long been known that Darwin wrote the Origin of Species in a few months after July 1858, using the manuscript of the much longer work he had been writing and planned to publish as Natural Selection, and that a number of leaves of his autograph manuscript survive in Cambridge University Library, the American Philosophical Society and other collections in Britain and the United States. During recent years other single leaves have appeared on the market from time to time, one being sold at Sotheby's New York in 2005 for nearly $275,000. The leaves have been widely dispersed and cannot now be looked at alongside each other. In order to understand the manuscript, we need a coordinated treatment on the basis of a 'union' approach by holders and Darwin scholars. When the Creation of the Origin unit of the Darwin Manuscripts Project was planned, we adopted the manuscript of the Origin of Species as a pioneer venture for DARBASE, the union catalogue of Darwin's manuscripts that is the backbone of our project.



Accordingly, the leaves of the manuscript are all included in the Darwin Manuscripts Project's DARBASE, which is being developed as the necessary superstructure for a unified edition of all Darwin's scientific manuscripts. This resource is being compiled with the active collaboration of Cambridge University Library, the American Philosophical Society, English Heritage at Down House, the Natural History Museum, and the Charles Darwin Trust.



Earlier this year we were put in touch with Mr Milton Forsyth, who has been carrying out a similar search for leaves of the Origin manuscript for some time. We have exchanged information with him and each side had information that was fresh for the other. We are grateful for his help for our project.



As part of the programme for the union catalogue, we are continuing a comprehensive search of all major libraries and other collections for Darwin manuscripts, and we will add all we find to DARBASE. If any more leaves of the Origin manuscript are found by others, we will be grateful for information and will include them in DARBASE if the necessary data can be made available.



Surviving leaves



Through our search for Origin leaves and with Mr Forsyth's contribution we have now identified and located 36 numbered sheets of the manuscript with eight attached slips for alterations or additions of a sentence or more. An additional six leaves, known to exist from auction sales, have yet to be located. There are also two autograph drafts for the title-page, a single page of the fair copy, one chapter head summary, and a set of the final printer's proofs.



Calculating from the appearance on page 301 of the published book of the text on leaf 355 of the manuscript, its last surviving numbered page, we estimate that the full manuscript could have contained as many as 550-580 numbered sheets and the 42 surviving leaves are indeed rare, amounting to some 7% of the total. The surviving sheets include one of Chapter I, Variation under domestication, one reported of Chapter III, Struggle for existence, two of Chapter V, Laws of Variation, 23 located and 5 reported of Chapter VI, Difficulties on theory, seven located and one reported of Chapter VII, Instinct, two of Chapter VIII, Hybridism, two located and one reported of Chapter IX, On the imperfection of the geological record. The leaves for Chapters V-VIII are all based on passages in Darwin's Natural Selection of which the text is available. Only the last surviving leaf is from one of the chapters that Darwin wrote for the first time when he produced the Origin of Species.



Edition



Our edition of the surviving leaves of the Origin manuscript consists of records of each leaf with a digital scan, a transcript and notes. More information will be provided soon on the physical characteristics, the corresponding text in Natural Selection, the corresponding text in the Origin of Species (1859), features of the text and the known history of the leaf up to now.



The text of the Origin of Species had a long history from Darwin's first sketch in 1842 to his final edition seventeen years later. After the first sketch he expanded it into the 1844 essay and wrote it out fully so that it could be copied and read by others. In 1856 at Lyell's instigation, he started writing a slightly expanded version of the 1844 essay with some significant additions to the argument, and as he wrote, the work grew into a much larger text which he planned to publish with the title Natural Selection. In June 1858 when he had completed ten chapters of that book, he received the letter from Alfred Russel Wallace in which Wallace set out his own theory of evolution. After the joint announcement at the Linnean Society of Darwin and Wallace's theories, Darwin wrote the 'abstract' of his theory to be published as the Origin of Species. On reading his text in proof he found the text unclear in many places and made extensive changes. The book was published by John Murray in November 1859; it was sold out at the publisher's sale to the trade, and a second edition appeared a month and a half later. Darwin produced four fresh editions with many changes and additions in the following years to the final edition in 1872. Over three quarters of the sentences in the first edition were revised once or more in later editions and over a third more were added. By then Darwin had also produced two further works that were versions of parts of his formerly planned longer work - his full treatment of The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication published in 1868, and his account of human origins, human nature and sexual selection in The Descent of Man in 1871.



Darwin wrote and revised the manuscript and proofs of the Origin of Species between July 1858 and October 1859. He based Chapters I-VIII and XI on his manuscript for Natural Selection and he wrote Chapters IX-X and XII-XIV separately. He added a number of new facts to his book and he corrected a few mistakes. Darwin's correspondence and certain other sources in Cambridge University Library's Darwin papers and the John Murray Archive provide much detailed information about the writing of the manuscript and Darwin's further adjustments to the text through the proof stages. The points will be analysed and put together for an understanding of Darwin's method in drafting the work and adjusting the text in proof, together with the sequence of events and what they reveal about his work on the text.



In his work on the draft Darwin devoted his main effort to clarifying the text for the general reader. In their place between the manuscript of Natural Selection and the published text of the Origin of Species, the surviving manuscript leaves together with Darwin's correspondence with John Murray, Hooker and Lyell show how hard Darwin worked on the clarification and how difficult he found it, leading to a physical breakdown in May 1859. After having his first draft of the text fair-copied, he made revisions on that text and further changes to the first and second proofs before he was satisfied. The material points to some of the difficulties Darwin felt he had in explaining his theory and how he tried to overcome them. What can be determined about the changes he made will be explained later in the project.



After publication



Darwin often used the backs of his old manuscripts for rough notes and his son Francis recorded that 'in this way, unfortunately, he destroyed large parts of the original MS. of his books.' (Life and Letters 1.121.) He also allowed his children to use paper he had used on one side for their notes and drawings

.

A pile of papers was kept in a cupboard under the stairs for the children to use for drawing. One sheet that has been recovered from this pile is a sheet of the fair copy of Chapter I of the Origin with a drawing by Darwin's son Francis aged ten at the time.



In the 1860s many people began to collect autographs of public figures. A number of people wrote to Darwin requesting samples of his handwriting with a signature. See for instance his correspondence with Hermann Kindt, Editor of The Autographic Mirror, in 1865. He copied out passages of his writings for some, and in one case signed a leaf of the manuscript of the Origin for his brother Erasmus Alvey Darwin to give to a neighbour in London, giving the date 'June 26th 1871'.



After Emma Darwin's death in 1896, Henrietta Darwin played a part in clearing the house for the lettings that followed. Between 1902 and 1923 she gave single leaves of the Origin manuscript to a number of acquaintances including the scientists Henry Fairfield Osborn and Karl Pearson, often with an accompanying note that the leaf was one from the Origin manuscript. In 1923, shortly before her eightieth birthday, she wrote to her niece Margaret's husband Geoffrey Keynes, 'I have some sheets of the Origin wh. I mean to divide up to those of your generation who would like to possess them.' She then distributed the sheets to her nieces Gwen Raverat, Nora Barlow and Margaret Keynes, Margaret's husband Geoffrey and their four year-old son Richard. One of Richard's two numbered leaves is now on deposit at Cambridge University Library; the other is on display at Down House.



Union approach again



The manuscript of the Origin of Species is of great interest for what it reveals about the writing of the Origin. It is now the most widely scattered single manuscript of any work by Darwin. It would be helpful to be able to link the leaves digitally with each other and with other correspondence and publications. The web provides a perfect way of reuniting, building and providing msterial.



As mentioned above, the web edition is the first venture in the Darwin Manuscripts Project's union approach to Darwin material, following the outstanding example of the Darwin Correspondence Project. We offer the venture as a model for other ventures covering different aspects of Darwin's heritage, and for other scientists and topics.



Thanks



Our thanks to the American Museum of Natural History, Cambridge University Library, Down House (English Heritage) for their generous contributions and support for the Darwin Manuscripts Project. Our particular thanks go to the contributing libraries and their professional staffs for making this digital gathering of the Origin leaves possible: American Museum of Natural History, American Philosophical Society, Cambridge University Library, Eton College Library, Houghton Library (Harvard University), Lehigh University Library, Natural History Museum, Smithsonian Institution (Dibner Library),and University College London.











Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 109af6r
Childrens' drawings on verso of Origin leaves
Origin Ms p 40 Sect 1 Variation under domestication
Document Extent: 26 sheets   Folio Extent: 1 sheet

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(40
«best» animalst1. & thus improve them; «& the improved individuals» they are changed «slowly «these slowly sp modified»» «slowly spread in the» immediate neighbourhood, & slowly spread. «But» As yet they «will» have hardly «have» «distinct» names, & from being only slightly valued, their history will hardly be remembered «disregarded». When further improved «by the same slow & gradual process» they will spread more widely, & «will» get recognised as something «distinct &» valuable, & «will then» probably «first» receive a name. In semi-civilised countries, with little free communication, the spreading Knowledge of any new sub-breed would be very slow, As soon as the «point of» value of the new sub-breed were once acknowledged, there «would always be a tendency «slowly» to augment the modification» modification would always tend «slowly whatever their nature» to augment, by owing to what I have called unconscious selection the principle as I have called it of unconscious selection would always tend,-- perhaps more at one period than another, as the breed rose or fell in [text cut and lost] [one word illegible] in one district than in [text cut; illegible]
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 109af6v
Childrens' drawings on verso of Origin leaves
Drawing: Aubergine and Carrot Cavalry
Document Extent: 26 sheets  
Harvard University (Houghton Library) fMS Eng 1214
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Ms p 156 Sect V Laws of Variation
Document Extent: 1 sheet  

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(156

Sect V. Laws of variationt1 1


to «watch &» keep constant their deviations «in structure.». They are «freely» left to the play of the various laws of growth, the long-continued effects of disuse, & to the tendency to reversion or inheritance.

A part normally developed in any species in an extraordinary degree or manner, in comparison with the same part in allied species, tends to be highly variable.— Several years ago I was much struck with a remark, nearly to the above effect, published by Mr. Waterhouse. I infer, also, from an observation made by Prof. Owen with respect to the length of the arms of the ourang-outang, that he has independently come to a largely «nearly» similar conclusion. It is hopeless to attempt to bring convince anyone of the truth of this «proposition» without giving the long array of facts, which I have collected, & which cannot possibly be here introduced. I can only state my conviction that it is a rule of high generality. I am aware of several cause of error, but I hope that I have made due allowance for the,. It applies to any part however abnormally developed «if [letter illegible] when compared » in comparison with the part in its «whole» class; but
  • t1 Sect V. Laws of variation] boxed
Reproduced with permission of the Trustees of Harvard University and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
  • 1. Note at foot of page: 'Part of the MS of the Origin of Species by Chas. Darwin | G. H. Darwin Oct. 68'
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Karpeles Museum Library
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Ms p163 Ch. V.
Document Extent: 1 sheet  

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(163

Ch. V.t1


of the «same» species. And this is the same as sayin «the statement» admitting «stating» «stating» that a character which is generally of generic value, when it sinks in value & becomes, only of specific character, «value, » it t2 often «it also becomes» variable.2

[On the ordinary view of each «a» species having been independently created, why should such parts of its structure, which differ from «the same part in» other independently created species, be more variable, than those parts which are closely alike in several species? I do not see that any explanation «can be given.» But «on» our view of species being only strongly marked & fixed varieties; become permanen we might «surely» expect «often» to find them still often varying in those part of their structure, which from having varied «have varied, only & thus come» in some greater «more strongly» degree marked «to differ». & less fluctuating manner, had raised them «have come to be» to the rank of species. Or , to state the case differently;— the points in which all the species of a genus resemble each other & in which they differ from «the species of» some other group genus, are called generic characters; & these «characters in common» we may attribute in our view to inheritance
  • t1 Ch. V.] boxed
  • t2 ‸] empty caret
Reproduced with the permission of Karpeles Manuscript Library and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
  • 1. There are two problems with identifying this sheet as a surviving leaf of the Origin manuscript. First the paper colour is neither gray nor blue and if this is a sheet of typical Origin paper, it is the most faded exemplar known, far exceeding Ms pp. 201 and 204. Second this is the only known leaf headed 'Ch.' instead of 'Sect.' and it is the only numbered leaf lacking a title. This difficulty is compounded by the fact that the only other leaf from this chapter, Ms p. 156, is headed 'Sect V. Laws of variation'. Notwithstanding, we have included the sheet which is in CD's hand and clearly bears some strong relation to the Origin 1859, which may be clarified in the future.
  • 2. There is a long gap in the text, which in Origin 1859: 155 is filled by a mention of Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire: 'Something of the same kind applies to monstrosities: at least Is. Geoffroy St. Hilaire seems to entertain no doubt, that the more an organ normally differs in the different species of the same group, the more subject it is to individual anomalies.' Virtually the same language was used in Natural Selection 321, with a quote from Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, I. 1832-1837, 1:XXX. In Ms p. 163, there are two sets of pin holes at this point, where some form of this reference may have been attached.
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Eton College Library Anne Thackeray Ritchie Archive, ECL MS 430
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Ms p 197 Sect VI Transitional Habits
Document Extent: 1 sheet  

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Sect VI. Transitional Habitst1


productions, when in course of being rendered aquatic; & in other such cases. Hence transitional grades would be little likely to be found, at least abundantly, amongst fossil remains.

I will now give only two or three instances of changed habits «in the same species» & «and» of diversified habits , sometimes in the same species individual, & of changed habits in the same species. When either case & sometimes very «widely» differing from those of its own nearest congeners. When a species displays a either constantly or occasionally some diversified habits, it «occurs, it» would be easy for natural selection to fit the animal «either for its changed habits or exclusively for» for, one of its diversified habits; when, & this might «would» usually entail «generally be best ensured by some» modification of structure. But it is difficult to tell, & immaterial for us, whether commonly habits first change & subsequently structure, or whether slight modification of. structure «of the body» lead to changed habits: both probably «often» occur.1 Of changed habits it will suffice just to allude to the immense cases of «British» insects feeding almost exclusively on exotic plants, or «exclusively» on quite artificial substances. Of diversified habits innumerable instances could be given: I have often watched a tyrant-flycatcher (Saurophagus sulphuratus) in S. American hovering over one spot & then proceeding to another like a kestril; & at other times standing stationary
  • t1 Sect VI. Transitional Habits] boxed
Reproduced by permission of the Fellows and Provost of Eton College and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
  • 1. Here Darwin seems to put aside Lamarck's premise, so dominant for him in Notebook C, that change in behaviour precedes change in structure.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 103
Miscellaneous letters from and to C. R. Darwin and others. Also individual leaves and fragments of Cirripedia and Origin, drafts
Origin draft, Ms p 198 Sect VI Transitional habits
[1858.10.23]-[1858.11.13]
Folio Extent: 1 sheet

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(198

Sect VI. Transitional habitst1


on the margin of water, & «then» dashing in, like a King-fisher after «on a» fish .t2 It3n our «own» country the larger titmouse (Parus major) may be continually seen climbing branchest4 «almost» like a creeper or woodpecker; it often «like a shrike» Kills bird small birds by blows on the head, & I have many times seen & heard it, hammering «on a branch» & breaking the seeds of the yew, like a nut at nut hatch. In N. America «the black» bear has been «was» seen «by Hearne» swimming for hours with widely open mouth, thus catching«, like a whale.» the minute crustaceans swimming on the surface. «insects in the water.» Even in so extreme a case as this, if the supply of minute crustaceans «insects» were constantst5, & there did not ««already» exist» better adapted competitors, I can see no difficulty in a race of Bears being rendered by natural selection more & more aquatic in habits & structure, with larger & larger mouth, till a monstrous «a» creature was produced as monstrous «in size & structure» as a whale.] though feeding on such minute prey so minute.]

As we see thatspecies «the» individuals of the same «a» species sometimes follow habits widely different from those of their congeners, «own & other species of the «same» genus;» we might expect on our
  • t1 Sect VI. Transitional habits] boxed
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Lehigh University Libraries Special Collections
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Ms p 201 Transitional habits
Document Extent: 2 sheets  

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(201

Sect VI. transitional habitst1


water-hen is nearly as aquatic as the coot, & the land-rail nearly ast2 terrestrial as the quail or partridge. In such cases, & many could be given, habits have changed without a corresponding change of structure: the webbed feet of an upland goose are rudimentary in function, though not in structure; in the frigate-bird, the deeply scooped membrane between the toes shows that structure has begun to change.]

[He who believes in separate & innumerable acts of Ct3reation will say that in these cases it has pleased the Creator to make a cre creation «being» of one type take the place of one of another type; which «but this» seems to me only repeating restating the fact in dignified language. He who believes in natural selection, will acknowledge that everywhere each organism is constantly struggling to increase in numbers; & that if it vary ever so little & has «gains» some advantage over the «other» inhabitants of the same country, it will seize on any place whatever in the economy of nature, however different it «may be» from its own original place .t4 & «Hence» it will cause him no surprise, that theret5 should be webbed upland geese now living on the dry land, webbed frigate-birds never «most rarely» alighting on the water, long-toed corn-crakes living in meadows,
  • t1 Sect VI. transitional habits] boxed
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Courtesy of Special Collections, Lehigh University Libraries, and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 137
Miscellaneous letters from and to C. R. Darwin and others. Also individual leaves and fragments of Cirripedia and Origin, drafts
Origin draft, Ms p 202 Sect VI Transitional habits
Folio Extent: 1 sheet

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(202

Sect VI. Transitional habitst1


instead of in swamps; that there should be wood-peckers, & I may add tree-frogs, where there is not a wood «tree»; that there should be diving thrushes, & petrels with all the habits of an aukst2.

Organs of extreme perfection & complication.— To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances, for «unconsciously» adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light & for the correction of spherical & chromatic aberrations, «could have been formed by natural selection,» is «seems», I freely confess absurd in the highest possible degree. the accumulation of infinitely many slight variations Yet reason tells me, that if numerous gradations can be from a perfect «& complex» eye to one very imperfect & simple,— each grade being useful to its possessor—, if we «can be» shown to exist or «will» to have existed or was now to exist; if, further, the eye does ever vary ever so slightly & the variations «can» ever «could» be inherited (which «and it» «which» as is certain «that they can be») & may be useful under changing «might if any variation or modification in the organ could ever be useful to an organism be under changing» conditions of life, [illegible] «to its «each»» possessor, then the difficulty must be considered «of believing that a perfect & complex eye might be formed by natural selection», though insuperable in ty «to» our imagination, can hardly be considered real.]

[In looking for gradations in any structure, we ought to look to
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 108f1
Origin draft, Difficulties Section
Ms p 203 Sect VI Highly perfect organs
Folio Extent: 1 sheet

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(203

Sect VI. Highly perfect organst1


exclusively to the long lineal ancestors: this ist2 most cases scarcely ever possible; & we are forced «in each case» to look to organisms of the same group, or «that is to the» collateral descendantst3 «from the same parent-form,» to see by analogy what variations are possible, & what forms may «states of the structure» have been transmitted «from various stages of descent» in an unaltered state «or little altered condition.» Amongst the «existing» Vertebrata we find no perfect «nearly but a small amount» of gradation , in the structure of the eye, & amongst fossil species we «can» Know nothing of it: & we in this «great» class we should have probably to as descend far beneath to lowest «Known» fossiliferous stratumt4 to discover the «earlier» stages by which the eye hast5 been perfected. But in the Articulata, we can start from an optic nerve coated with pigment, without any other mechanism. We are here no more concerned How a nerve is rendered «comes to be» sensitive is rendered «cpmes to be» sensitive to light hardly «does not» « here » concern us, more than how life first originated: but I may remark that several facts make me suspect that any sensitive nerve may be rendered sensitive to light, or to «& likewise to» thoset6 coarser vt7ibrations of the air, which causet8 sound. However this may be, in the Articulata we can start from an optic nerve, coated with pigment, but without any other mechanisms; & from this point «low stage», numerous gradations of per structure & perfection,
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American Museum of Natural History Rare Books Collection, RF-18-H
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Origin Ms p 204 Sect VI Highly Perfect Organs
[1858.10.23]-[1858.11.13]

Editorial symbols
(204

Sect VI. Highly perfect organst1


, branching off in two fundamentally different lines, can be shown to exist, until we reach the eyes a high stage of perfection.t2 in Ct3ertain crustacea have, for instance, «have» a double cornea, the inner one divided into facets, within each of which there is a lens-shaped swelling; «in other cases, t4 the transparent cot5nes also not rarely coated by pigment, which properly act only by excluding allt6 lateral pencil «pencils» of light, are rounded «convex» at their upper extremities, & must con act by convergence; & at their lower extremities there seems to be sometimesa vitreous substance. With these facts «, here only just alluded to,» & bearing in mind how small the number of living animals must «are» be to those which have become extinct, I can see no very great difficulty, not more than in the case of many other structures, in natural selection converting an optic nerve «merely» coated by pigments, & invt7ested by transparent membranes, intot8 as perfect an optical instrument as is possessed by any member of the great «Articulate» class.t9 of]

He who will go thus far; if on finishing this treatise he thinks large bodies of facts «otherwise inexplicable» are explained byt10 the theory of «descent &» natural selection, ought not to hesitate, «even » when he considers «even» such a structure as the eye of the Eagle; though in
  • t1 Sect VI. Highly perfect organs] boxed
  • t2 .] written over ','
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  • t4 ] several letters illegible
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  • t7 v] rewritten
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Reproduced with the permission of the American Museum of Natural History and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
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Cambridge University Library DAR 157: 1
Origin of species, Descent, and Power of Movement, drafts, individual leaves
Origin Ms p 205 Sect VI Highly perfect organs
[1858.10.23]-[1858.11.13]
Folio Extent: 1 sheet

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(205

Sect VI. Organs ofHighly perfect organst1


this case he does not Know any of the transitional grades. His reason ought to conquer his imagination: though I have felt the difficulty far too Keenly to be surprised at any degree of hesitation at extending the principle of natural selection, to what I believe, «legitimately as» to be its full & legitimate «such startling» lengths. [It is scarcely possible to avoid comparing in shortt2 the eye to a telescope. We Know that this instrument
  • t1 Sect VI. Organs ofHighly perfect organs] boxed
  • t2 short] conjectured transcription
Reproduced with the permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 108f2.1r
Sect VI Means of transition
Ms p 208 (not showing insert)

Editorial symbols
(208

Sect VI. Means of Transitiont1


Numerous cases could be given amongst the lower animals of the same organ «in the same animal» performing wholly different functions; thus the stomach or intestines «(as in larva of Dragon-fly & the fish C)ot2bites» may respirest3 & digestst4 ort5 excretest6. It7n the Ht8ydra the animal may be turned inside out; & the exterior surface will thent9 digest, & stomach respire. In such cases natural selection might easily specialise the whole or part of the organ to one function alone «if any advantage were thus gained.» Again there are many cases of two wholly distinct organs «in the same individual» performing the same function: to give only one instance, there are fish with gills or branchiæ which «thus» breath « air in the » «air dissolved in the» wt10ater, & at the same time have their sw breath «free» air in their swim-bladders; which is «this latter organ is being» divided by highly vascular membranes partitions, & hast11 «having» a ductus pneumaticus to supply air. In such cases, the one organ would perform its higher function «now would aid the other», whilst this other was becoming modified & perfected «so as to do the work by itself;» & then thet12 «first» might disappear or become modified for some other «& quite distinct» purpose.

This illustration of the swim-bladder of fish, is a good one because it «well» shows «us» the highly important fact that an organ originally constructed for one purpose «namely flotation» may be converted into «one for» a wholly different one «purpose», namely respiration; «(a)»

185: 108 (2a), insert (a)



(a)«Tt13he swim-bladder» it has also «I may add,» been worked in as an accessory organ to the auditory organs of certain fish; or part of the auditory apparatus has been worked in as a complement to the swim-ladder; for I do not Know which view is generally held.

main text continued



As At14ll physiologoists «I believe» admit that the swim-bladder « of fish » is strictly «in position & structure is» homologous with or "ideally similar" with the lungs of the higher vertebratet151
  • t1 Sect VI. Means of Transition] boxed
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  • 1. Ink insertion note by CD on verso, apparently superseded by the long pinned insert: '(a); in certain'.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 108f2.2r
Sect VI Means of transition
Insert attached to Ms p 208
Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 108f2.1v
Sect VI Means of transition
Ms p 208 verso
Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 108f3r
Sect VI Means of transition
Ms p 209
Document Extent: 1 sheet; See DAR 185: 14  

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DAR 185: 108 (3r)

(2091

Sect VI. Means of Transitiont1


animals; in all its relations of position & structure, hencet2 there seems to me to be no great difficulty in «believing that natural selection has actually converted a swim_bladder into a lung» or natural selection completing the stages of conversion, & making «organs» exclusively an organ «used for respiration.»

Nor «I» can «indeed hardly» I doubt that the « true » lungs of all the higher air breathing vertebrata are actually a modified swim-bladder; that theset3 « animals » «animals having truet4» «lungs lungst5 «have» all descended by ort6dinary generation from an ancient proto aquatic prototype «, of which we know nothing,» furnished with a floating organ of natationt7 «apparatus or swim-bladder.» We can thus «,as, I presume,

insert from verso

B, as I infer from Profs. Owen's interesting description of these parts,

DAR 185: 108 (3r) continued

understand the strange anomaly «fact» that every particle of food & drink which these animals swallowed «we swallow» « by them » has to mass over the orifice of the trachea, with some risk «of falling into the lungs,» not withstanding the beautiful contrivance by which the glottis is closed , of entering the lungs « pulling into ». In thet8 higher animals «vertebrata» the branchiæ have wholly «(a)»

insert from DAR 185: 141

«(a)» disappeared, the slits on the sides of the neck «in of the embryo» the loop-like Ct9ourse of the arteries, still marking their former position. But it is conceivable that the «now utterly lost» branchiæ might have been «gradually» worked in by natural selection for some quite distinct purpose. In the same manner as some entomologists

DAR 185: 108 (3r) continued

«the slits on the side of the neck & the course of the arteries, still marking in the embryo their former positiont10»2 disappeared, but it is conceivable that the «branchiæ» might have been worked into some «quite new» use, when as the possessor «animals which bore them» slowly were «became» fitted to inhabit air « locations which » «dwell on the land» instead of «under the» water. In this way as some entomologistst11$ believe that the «wings & wing-covt12ers of insects» branchiæ & protruding« dorsal »scales in annelids have are homologous with , that inner sidet13 view have been converted from, the branchiæ & dorsal scales of annelids; & therefore on this «our» viewst14
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  • t10 «the slits on the side of the neck & the course of the arteries, still marking in the embryo their former position] in pale pencil; erasure
  • t11 disappeared, but it is conceivable that the «branchiæ» might have been worked into some «quite new» use, when as the possessor «animals which bore them» slowly were «became» fitted to inhabit air « locations which » «dwell on the land» instead of «under the» water. In this way as some entomologists] crossed; in brown ink
  • t12 ov] rewritten
  • t13 inner side] conjectured transcription
  • t14 s] final letter appended
  • 1. Transcription includes inserts.
  • 2. This very faint pencil passage was, effectively, a draft for insert (a), which CD wrote in a quite fair hand.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 108f3v
Sect VI Means of transition
Ms p 209v (insert B)
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(B), as I infer from Profs. Owen's interesting description of these parts,

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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 108f4
Origin draft, Difficulties Section
Ms p 210 Sect VI Means of transition
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capable of actual conversion have been converted from the one purpose to the other.]

[In considering transitions of organs, it is so important to bear in mind that one organ « originally » fitted for one purpose may be converted « fitted for » into another wholly different one,«this possibility of conversion from one purpose to another in mind,» that I will give one more instance. Pedunculated cirripedes have two minute foldst2 of skin, called by me the ovigerous fræna, which serve through the means of a sticky secretion, to retain within the sack the sheets of eggs, until they are hatched; these cirripedes have no branchiæ, the whole surface of the body sack & body serving for this purpose «end»: the Balanidæ, on the other hand, apparently owing apparently to their better enclosed shell, have no ovigerous fræa, the sheets of eggs lying loose at the bottom of the sack; but they have large plicated brachiaæ, Nowt3 I think it can be shown from I think no one will dispute that the ovigerous fræa in the one group family are strictly homologous with the branchiaæ of the other group; indeed they graduate into each other.t4 & therefore I cannot «Therefore I do not» doubt that the ovigerous fræna «which no doubt like the rest of the sack «must have» served [torn] in some very small degree for respiration» have been enlarged by natural selection, & losing their adhesive functions have been converted «by mere increase in size & plication» into branchiæ. If the pedunculated cirripedes had all become extinct; & they have «already» suffered far more extinction than the Balanidæ, who could «would» possibly have ventured imagined that the in this latter
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Cambridge University Library DAR 157: 2
Origin of species, Descent, and Power of Movement, drafts, individual leaves
Origin Ms p 211 Sect VI Means of transition
[1858.10.23]-[1858.11.13]

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family the branchiæ had originally existed ast2 organs «merely» for prevt3enting the ova «from» being washed away.--

Although we must be extremely cautious in concluding that any organ could not have been «slowly» formed by transitional grades, yet undoubtedly some grave «grave» cases of difficulty can be adduced «advanced», some of which I shall hereafter «in my future work» discuss. Perhaps one of the gravest is that of neuter insects which have «sometimes» a very different structure & in from that of either «the» male ort4 «the» fertile female; & yet these neuters never propagate their Kind; I will say a few words on this head in the next Section chapter. The Electric organs of fishes is a special case of difficulty; & it impossible to conceive by what steps the[rewritten] wondrous organs could have been «form» produced; but as Owen «& others» have remarked the intimate structure «of the electric organs» closely resembles that of «common» muscle; & as it has lately been shown by that Rays have an
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Cambridge University Library DAR 157: 3
Origin of species, Descent, and Power of Movement, drafts, individual leaves
Origin Ms p 212 Sect VI Means of transition
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organ, closely analogous to the electric apparatus, & yet are not Known «were found by Matteuchi not» too discharge «any» electricity; we must owne «own» «that» we are too ignorant on what subjects to speculate on the probable means of transition «to argue that transitions would not have been affected» on «against» the probability of transitions of some kind.]

[The electric fishes «organs of fish» offer another & even graver «more serious» difficulty; for these occur in only about a dozen members of that great class, «fishes,» & some of these are almost as remote as possible from each other in their grett2 class. Generally when the same organ appears in several members of a class «, especially if they have very different habits,» we attribute its presence to inheritance from a common ancestor; & its absence in a few scattered members to its subsequent loss.. But from the extreme rarity of the electric organs in fishes «fish»; & theirt3 occurrence at such remote points in the scale, together with «and» what is Known on fossil fishes, «taken together» such an explanation would not be «make such a supposition» extremely improbable. The presence of luminous organs in a few insects of very different orders is a parallel case, & some others could be given; for instance in plants, the very curious contrivance of the
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Cambridge University Library DAR 157: 4
Origin of species, Descent, and Power of Movement, drafts, individual leaves
Origin Ms p 213 Sect VI Means of transition

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adherent granules of pollen «adhering together &» borne on a foot-stalk with a sticky gland at the «one» end, is the same in the Orchis & Asclepias, which belong to the twot2 main divisions of phanerogamic plants. In most of such cases «, however,» it should be observed that although the general appearance & function of the organ is «be» the same in the remotelyt3 «related» species, yet some fundamental difference in the part which has been used beingt4 modified for the purpose in question may often be detected; & I am inclined to believe, that in nearly the same way as from the general advance of Knowledge two men have sometimes independently hit on the very same invt5ention, so natural selection, under somewhat similar circumstances & for a similar purpose «working for thet6 good of each «being» & taking advantage of analogous variations,» has sometimes modified «in the same way» part of two organisms, which had «owed» but little in common from «to» inheritance.]

Although in many cases it is most difficult to conjecture by what transitions an organ could have arrived at its present state, yet, considering how small the proportion of living forms must be to the
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Sales Catalogues Sotheby's, New York 26 April 2005
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft leaves & related materials
Ms p 214 Sect VI Transition of organs

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Sect VI. Transitions of organst1


extinct, I have been astonished how rarely an organ can be found, towards which we can discover no transitional grade is known to lead. «The truth of» this fact is indeed shown by that old canon in natural history, "natura non facit saltum". Wt2e meet with this admission in the writings of almost every experienced naturalist; or, as Milne Edwards has well expressed it, nature is prodigal of «in» variety but niggard in innovation. Why, on the theory of Creation, should this be so? why if each organict3 «being & each «all organs»» hast4 been separately created for its «proper» place in nature, «in nature,» should all «its» organs be so generally linked together «in each «all beings» found to be linked by graduated steps with the organs of other independently created beings?» Wt5hy should not nature take a leap? On the theory of natural selection we can clearly understand this «why she should not «not;»» for natural selection can march «progress only» by the slowest «shortest» & shortest «slowest» steps, & can never take a leapt6.] forward
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Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
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Sales Catalogues Sotheby's, London 28 March 1983
Ms p 215 Sect VI Organs of little apparent importance
reconstructed insert ⓐ to Origin Ms p 215

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Sales Catalogues Sotheby's, London 28 March 1983
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft leaves & related materials
Ms p 216 Sect VI Organs of small importance

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Reproduced by permission Sotheby's, London and William Huxley Darwin
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 108f5
Origin draft, Difficulties Section
Ms p 217 Sect VI Organs of small importance
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Sect VI. organs of small importancet1


will, «that» sexual selection will have often largely modified external features to give one male an advantage over «in fighting with» another or «in» charming the females. Moreover, when a modification of structures has arisen from any of the above or other unknown causes, it may be taken advantage of «other species with» by the «in newly acquired» habits. or economy of its possessor. To give a very few instances, better to show what I mean «illustrating these latter remarks». If green Woodpeckers alone had existed;, & we did not Know that there were many black & pied Kinds, I have no doubt «daresay» that we should have thought the green colour a beautiful adaptation to hidet2 this tree-frequenting bird «& that it. might consequently have arisen through natural selection;»; as it is, I have no doubt the colour is due to some quite distinct cause, probably to sexual selection. A «trailing» Java bamboo «in the Malay archipelago» climbs the loftiest trees by exquisitely, extended hooks clustered around the ends of the branches; & these no doubt are of the highest service to the plant; but as we see nearly similar hooks in many cl trees, which are not climbers, to «the hooks of the bamboo may «may»» have probably arisen «not from natural selection, but» from unknown laws of growth, & when per «subsequently» have been taken advantage of it & even further modified «improved», so as to serve for climbing.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 108f6
Origin draft, Difficulties Section
Ms p 218 Sect VI Organs of small importance
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& the bamboo «being modified has been thus become» indeed a climber.

The naked skin on the heads of vultures is generally looked at as a direct adaptation for wallowing in putridity; & so it may be; or it may «possibly» be «due» the effect of the «direct action» of putrid matter; but we should be very cautious in drawing such inferences, when we see the naked skin on the head of the clean-feeding male turkey. The open sutures in the heads of young mammals, has often been advanced as a beautiful adaptation for parturition; & no doubt it facilitates ort2 may be indispensable[undefined] for this act; but as we find open sutures in the heads of young birds & reptiles, which have to emerge «escape only» from a broken egg, we may infer that this structure has arisen from the laws of growth, & hast3 been taken advantage of in the «act of» parturition in the higher animals.--

It is most necessary to «try to» to be fully conscious of one's own ignorance «on causes producing slight & unimportant variations; »; & nothing has seemed to me better for this purpose than to reflect on the breeds of our domestic animals in different countries,
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 108f7
Origin draft, Difficulties Section
Ms p 219 Sect VI Organs of little importance
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more especially in the less civilised countries, where there has been little artificial selection. Not but what I am convinced, th as previously explained, that there hardly existst2 a race of man so barbaroust3 that they have not probably in some degree influenced «modified by occasional & unconscious selection» their domestic animals. In the case of the races of man himself, the difficulty rises to a climax, for artificial selection is «here» quite eliminated. In our domestic animals, careful observers are convinced that a damp climate affects the growth of the hair, & that with th hair the growth of the horns is correlated, «& Mountain breeds of all our animals differ from the lowland breeds &» A mountainous country, would probably affect «through use greater use» the hinder limbs, & possibly even the form of the pelvis; & then by the law of homotypic «homologous» variation, the fatt4 «front» limbs & even the head would «might» «would probably» be affected .t5 Tt6he shape «,also,» of the pelvis might even affect by pressure in the womb the shape of the head.t7 Tt8he laborious breathing of in high regions would, we have some reason to believe, would come into play. Animals Kept by savage races in different countries, would «often» have to live largely by a struggle for life «their own subsistence,» & would be exposed to much «a certain extent to» natural selection; & individuals
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 108f8
Origin draft, Difficulties Section
Ms p 220 Sect VI Characters of little importance
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with slightly different constitutions would succeed under different climates .t2 Tt3here is some reason to believe that constitution & colour are correlated & a good observer states that «in cattle» susceptibility to the attacks of flies is correlated with colour; as «is liability to the poison of certain plants.»

But we are far too ignorant to speculate on the theset4 subject, «relative importance «of the» various influences;» &t5 I have alluded to themt6 to show that if we are unable to account for «the» such differences «the» characters, which distinguish our domestic breeds in different countries, & which nevertheless we «generally» admit have arisen during the course of ordinary generations, we ought not to lay much stress on our ignorance of the precise «precise» cause of analogous differences between true species. I will here say nothing on the «origin of the» races of Mt7an, which are so strongly marked; I think I can see some little light «chiefly through sexual selection of a particular Kind,» but without entering on «copious» details, my reasoning would appear «quite» frivolous.--

The foregoing remarks lead me to say a few words on the protest lately [illegible] made by some naturalists that against the doctrine that every part & detail of structure has been created for the good of the organism «its possessor» Theyt8 believe that a
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 108f9
Origin draft, Difficulties Section
Ms p 221 Sect VI Characters of little importance
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multitude of details have been created for beauty or «in the eyes of man, or for» mere variety. Thist2 latter «Such a» doctrinet3 are is absolutely opposed to our theory. Yet I fully admit that each in many parts are of no direct use to their possessorst4. Physical conditions probably have «had» some «little» effect «on structure», quite independently of any good «thus» gained«.» , <thus>1 <thus gained>2: Ct5orelation of growth has had «no doubt» played a most important part, but then the «and all» [alternative transcription 'any'] changes modification of structure ‸ which has «once of use to the possessor will have often» entailedt6 other & diversified changes, will generally have been of no «direct» use; but not injurious, St7o reversion may cause t8 characters «now useless» to reappear at the present day, though «they» may have formerly been so, «useful;» or only «may» formerly «only have arisen from » due to correlations of «growth or be due to» or «to» the direct action of physical conditionst9 .t10 Tt11he effects of sexual selection, when resulting giving only beauty in the eyes of the other sex, can only be called useful «only» in rather a forced sense & Bt12ut «by» what is far «the » mostt13 important consideration, is that in every orgamism the main & fundamental part of the structure of every organism must be «organic being» «is» due to inheritance; & therefore often of no special use , yet will to each species «at the present time;» though each species undeniably is well fitted for its place in nature. Thus we can hardly believe that the webbed feet «web between the toes» of the upland goose or «of the » [rewritten]rigate bird
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American Philosophical Society Library Darwin Papers B D25.57
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Ms p 222 Sect VI Characters of little importance
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one «is» of special use to them; we cannot believe that the presence of the same bones in the «arm &» hand of the monkey, «in» the «leg &» foot of the dogt2, «in» the wing of the bat & fin «flipper» of the seal, are of special use to these animals. They are due to inheritance. But the webbed feet of the parent «the ancestors» of the upland goose & «of the » frigate-birds, «webbed feet» no doubt were as useful to them, as to «as they now are to» the most aquatic of existing birds; so again we may believe that the structures of the li bones of the limbs of the «common» ancestor of the monkey, dog, bat & seal &ct3 was «at that utterly remote period» of use to it; & was produced by natural selection, subjected «formerly as now» to the laws of «inheritance,» variation & correlations of growth. Hence almost every detail of structure of every living creation, (making some little allowance for the direct action of physical conditions) must «may» be viewed either as having been «directly» of use to its ancestors or to itself at «some ancestral form or as being, now of» t4 «use to «the» being at» present day; either directly, or indirectly through the complex laws of «reversion &» correlation of growth.]

[Natural selection cannot possibly produce any modification «in one species» for exclusively for the good of another species; though throughout nature one species «incessantly» takes
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American Philosophical Society Library Darwin Papers B D25.57
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Ms p 223 Sect VI What selection can do
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advantage of «& profits by» stru character «the» structures of another. «(a)»

[Insert (a) to Ms p. 223]2



(a)
But natural selection «t2» can & does often, produce structures for the «good of the owner but for the direct» injury of others species,-- as the sting of the wasp, or the ovipositor of the it3chneumon, by which eggs are deposited in the living bodies of other animals.

[Ms p. 223 continued]



If it could be found that modifications «of one form «species»» for «the» exclusive good of another«form species», had «do» exist, it would annihilate our theory; «for such could not «have» been produced through natural selection.» Although many factt4 statements may be found in works on natural history «to this effect,» I cannot find «even» one which seems to me of any weight, It is admitted that the poison-fang of a rattle-snake is given to it for defence & «for the destruction» of its prey, but some suppose that it has «at the same time»t5 a rattle tot6 warn its prey: I would as soon believe that the cat curls the end of its tail, when preparing to soring, to warn the doomed mouse. But I have not space here to enter on this or other such cases.]

[Natural [supermarks ]lt7 selectionwill never produce anything injurious for a being, for it acts solely by & for the good of each. No organ will be found, as Paley has remarked, to cause for the purpose of causing pain or doing injury to its possessor. If a fair balance be struck, between the good & evil caused by
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Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
  • 1. Slight ink blot on verso. Single straight-pin marks for pin attached from behind matching marks on insert slip 'a' indicate that the insert slip was attached to the back of the leaf near the top. APS Library folder: holds Leaves 222-223, insert slip marked 'a' formerly pinned to 223, 224, 269, 271. Folder marked with accession number 19561082 ms. Accession card note: 'Sessler-Sotheby Sale 6/27/56'.
  • 2. Pin holes in sheet for a single straight pin attached from the front matches pin holes on Ms p. 223, which shows that the insert slip was attached to the back of the leaf near the top.
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American Philosophical Society Library Darwin Papers B D25.57
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Insert (a) to MS p. 223
Document Extent: 6 draft sheets, 1 title page  

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(a)
But natural selection «t1» can & does often, produce structures for the «good of the owner but for the direct» injury of others species,-- as the sting of the wasp, or the ovipositor of the it2chneumon, by which eggs are deposited in the living bodies of other animals.

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American Philosophical Society Library Darwin Papers B D25.57
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Ms p 224 Sect VI What selection can do
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each part, «each» will be found on the whole advantageous. After the lapse of time, under changing conditions, if any part comes to be injurious, it will be modified, or the organism «being» will become «, as myriads have become,» extinct.

Natural selection tends only to make each organism as perfect «as», or slightly more perfect than, the other inhabitants of the same country, with which it has to struggle for existence. And we see that this is so in nature. The endemic productions of New Zealand, for instance, are perfect one compared with another; but by universalt2 «concurrent» tt3estmony they are rapidly yielding to «before» the advancing legions of «introduced» European plants & animals. Natural selection will not produce absolute perfection; nor apparently do we meet with it in nature. The correction for aberration is said «on high authority» not to be perfect even in that most perfect organ the eye. If our reason forcedt4 leads us to admire with enthusiasm a multitude of inimitable contrivances «in nature»; this same reason tell us,
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 108f10
Origin draft, Difficulties Section
Ms p 225 Sect VI What selection can do
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, though we may most easily err on both sides, that some «other» contrivances are much less perfect. Can we consider the sting of the wasp or bee perfect, which, when used against many attacking animals, «cannot be withdrawn owing to the backward serratures & so» inevitably causes the «the» death of the bee or wasp «of the insects» by tearing out the «its» viscera? If If we look back at the sting «of a» as a t2 boring organ «, modified but not perfected,» furnished «beautifully & therefore» serrated as in so many members of the same «great» order, «modified but not perfected,» with the poison originallyt3 adapted to cause galls, , intensifiedt4, we can perhaps understand this anomaly of itst5 use sot6 often causing «the insect's own» death .t7 Ft8or if ont9 the whole «it be «its use» «the power of stinging be»» useful to the community it will fullfilt10 the requirements of natural selection. If we admire the truly wonderful power of scent by which the males of many insects find the females; can we admire the production «for this single purpose of» event11 by the thousandst12 of drones«,:» for this single purpose; which are utterly useless to the community for any other purpose «good,» & which are ultimately slaughtered -- their industrious «but» sterile sisters. It may be difficult, but we ought to admire the savage intuitive hatred of the Queen-Bee, which compels «urges» her «instantly» to destroy t13 the young queens, «her daugthers,» as soon as born, or «herself» to perish in the constant «combat»; for
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University College London (Pearson Collection) Karl Pearson Papers 613-623: 2
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft leaves
Ms p 226 Sect VI What selection can do
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Sect VI What selection can do Summaryt1


undoubtedly this is for the good of the community; & maternal love or maternal hatred, though fortunately most rare, is all the same to the inexorable principle of natural selection. If we admire the admirable most ingenious contrivances by which the orchis ort2 asclepias & many other flowers are fertilised through insectt3-agency; can we consider as equally perfect in our coniferous trees, if the elaboration of dense clouds of pollen «by our fir-trees» in order that a few granules may be wafted by a chance breeze on «to» the ovules?

Summary of chapter.-- We have in this chapter considered some of the difficulties & objections which may most properly be urged against our theory. Many of them are most «very» grave; but I think «that», here & there, light has been thrown on large classes of facts, which, are utterly obscure. We have seen that species are not now «infinitely variable & are not» linked together by an infinitude «a multitude» of intermediate grat4dations, partly because the process of natural selection must be very slow & will act at any one time only on a very few forms;
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««having» performedt2» simultaneously t3 very different functions «& then «having» beent4 specialised for ot5ne;» or two very different organs «having» performedt6 at the same time the same functions «& one only having been retained,» must often have largely facilitated transitions.] on the principles of Natural selection we can clearly understand that general ancient canon in natural history, of "natura non facit saltum".—t7

We are too ignorant, perhaps, even «in almost every case» to be enabled to assert that any part or organ is so unimportant fort8 the welfare of a species, that «modification in its structure» it could not have been formed «slowly accumulated» by Natural selection. But we may confidently believe that many modifications, «originally» wholly due to the laws of growth «& at first in no manner advantageous,» have been subsequently taken advantage; of; byt9 «through» modifications in «the» habits or «other parts of the» structure of the species. «becoming having been» modified by natural selection so as to accord with that which has been «was at first» independently acquired. We may believe that a part formerly of high importance «(a)»

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«(a)» (as the tail of an terrestrial «aquatic» animal now rendered terrestrial,)

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has often been retained, when «become» of very such little use «importance, that it would not have been formed by natural selection.» or have been modified for other purposes.t10 little «small» importance to a species, that it would not have been formed by natural selection, acting on it «which acts solely» for the welfare of the «present» possessor.]

[Natural selection will produce nothing for theexclusively «for the good or «for the» injury» good of another species; though it «well» may for its injury. produce parts, organs &t11 excretions
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 145
Origin draft, Sect VI Summary
Ms p. 231

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DAR 185: 145

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Sect VI. Summaryt1


laws, Unity of Type & the Conditions of Existence. «The latter term is descent itself— by the former is meant «implied» the fundamental agreement in relation between organisms of the same class indepdtly of their means of life—»t2 2
Unity of type «(a)»

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«(a)» By unity of type is implied «meant» that fundamental agreement of organic beings in structure, which we see in organic beings of the same class, & which is quite independent of their habits of life.

DAR 185: 145 continued

Ont3 our theory, Unity of type means & is explained by Unity of descent. The expression of Conditions of Existence, so often insisted on by illustrious Cuvier, & his great disciple Owen,3 is «is» fully embraced «in our view of» by Natural selection; «for natural selection» which either «is» «acts by» «either» now adapting each «the varying parts of each» organism «being» to its organic & inorganic conditions of life «existence», «either» both directly or indirectly through correlations of growth or have adapted them «or» during long-past periods of time, either «has» directly or indirectly through «the laws» correlation of growth «adapted them to same conditions.» «» «or by having adapted them during long past periods of time;» «B»

indirectly through correlation of growth or having adapted them «ov» during long periods of time, either «has» directly or indirectly through correlation «the laws» of growth «adapted them to the same conditions.»t4 4

insert from DAR 185: 146

B ; the adaptations being aided in some cases by habit & disuse; being slightly affected by the direct action of the external conditions; & being in all cases subjected to the laws of correlation of growth.

[one word illegible; torn; at bottom of page]

DAR 185: 145 continued

Hence in fact the law of the Conditions of Existence is the highestt5 «law, as it» includes,t6 through the inheritance «of former adaptations,»t7 that of Unity of Type.



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Origin draft, Sect VI Summary
Ms p. 231 inserts a & B

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«(a)» By unity of type is implied «meant» that fundamental agreement of organic beings in structure, which we see in organic beings of the same class, & which is quite independent of their habits of life.
«(B)» ; the adaptations being aided in some cases by habit & disuse; being slightly affected by the direct action of the external conditions; & being in all cases subjected to the laws of correlation of growth.

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Sales Catalogues Bloomsbury Book Auction 11 November 1999
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft leaves & related materials
Ms p 235 Sect VII Instinct

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Sect 7. Instinctt1


instinctively. But it would be the most serious th error to suppose that the greater number of instincts have been acquired by habit in one generation & then transmitted to succeeding generations. Itt2 can be clearly shown that the most wonderful instincts, with which we are acquainted, namely those of the Hive-bee & of most Ants, could not possibly have been thus acquired.

If It will be universally admitted that the instincts of each species are good for it «& as important as th» under the «its» conditions of life, & as important «for its welfare as are » its corporeal structure. Then Ut3nder changed conditions of life it is at least possible that «slight» modifications of instinct might be profitable to any species. And if it can be shown that natural instincts do vary ever so little; then I can see no difficulty in natural selection preserving & continually accumulating variations of instinct «to any amount» in any profitable direction. Thus I believe all the most complex & wonderful instincts have originated. As modifications of corporeal structure both originate & are [one word illegible] increased by use & disuse;
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Ast2 tot3 «thet4 bodily» corporeal organs. Changes of instinct may sometimes be facilitated by «instances occurring of very» the same species having, though the cases are same case, different instincts at different periods of life, or time of «the» year, or when placed under different circumstances &c; «in which case» either one instinct or the other being «might be» preserved by natural selection: and such cases of diversity of instinct in the same species can be shown to occur in nature.]

[Again, as in the case of corporeal structure, & conformably with our theory, the instinct of each species is good for itself, but not exclusively «has has» never, as far as we can judge, been produced for the exclusive good of others. «(a)»

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[left top corner torn, presumed text: '(a)'] One of the strongest instances of an animal performing an t5 an action for the «apparently for the sole» good of another, with which I am acquainted, is that of Aphides «voluntarily» yielding their sweet ext6cretions tot7 Ants: that they do so voluntarily, the following facts show. I removed «all» the ants from «attending on» a group of aphides «on a dock-plant;» & prevented theirt8 «visits during» for several hours. revisiting them; By which time «After this period,» I was sure that the Aphides would want to excrete: I then watched them for some time through a lens, & not one excreted; It9 then tickled «& stroked» them with a hair fixed to a han «in the same manner» as «nearly» like «far» as I could, as the ants do with their antennæ; but not one excreted. Then «As soon, however, as» I then allowed an ant to visit them; & after hastily examining them he l[eft] immediately «this ant by the eager way it ran over to «whole» lot of above a dozen, seemed aware what a rich flock it had discovered,» it then began to play «with its antennæ» on thet10 abdomens «first of one aphis & then of another;» & each aphis immediately, came after the other «of the [one or more words illegible] » «as soon as it felt the antennæ» «& there were above a dozen.» immediately lifted up its abdomen & excreted «a limpid drop of» the sweet juice, which was devoured by the ant. Even the quite young aphides behaved «in» this way «manner», showing me that it was instinct & not experience. But as thet11 excretion is extremely viscid, I do not doubt that it is a convenience to the aphides to have it removed.] [Although I do not believe «that any animal in the world» performs an action for the exclusive good of another, yet

Ms p. [237] continued

But each species tries to take advantage of the instincts of others. In case «It12 some «few cases can certain» instincts be «cannot be» const13idered as absolutely perfect: but as details on these heads are in not indispensable they shall not be here given.

As some degree of variation in instincts under a state of nature, in the & the inheritance of such variations, is the indispensable foundation for natural selection to act on; it as is highly necessary «almost» «would be highly adviseablet14 here» «here» to give such instances «of variation;» but want of space here prevents me. I can only say that variations certainly do occur; «for instance» in the migratory instincts of
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[left top corner torn, presumed text: '(a)'] One of the strongest instances of an animal performing an t1 an action for the «apparently for the sole» good of another, with which I am acquainted, is that of Aphides «voluntarily» yielding their sweet ext2cretions tot3 Ants: that they do so voluntarily, the following facts show. I removed «all» the ants from «attending on» a group of aphides «on a dock-plant;» & prevented theirt4 «visits during» for several hours. revisiting them; By which time «After this period,» I was sure that the Aphides would want to excrete: I then watched them for some time through a lens, & not one excreted; It5 then tickled «& stroked» them with a hair fixed to a han «in the same manner» as «nearly» like «far» as I could, as the ants do with their antennæ; but not one excreted. Then «As soon, however, as» I then allowed an ant to visit them; & after hastily examining them he l[eft] immediately «this ant by the eager way it ran over to «whole» lot of above a dozen, seemed aware what a rich flock it had discovered,» it then began to play «with its antennæ» on thet6 abdomens «first of one aphis & then of another;» & each aphis immediately, came after the other «of the [one or more words illegible] » «as soon as it felt the antennæ» «& there were above a dozen.» immediately lifted up its abdomen & excreted «a limpid drop of» the sweet juice, which was devoured by the ant. Even the quite young aphides behaved «in» this way «manner», showing me that it was instinct & not experience. But as thet7 excretion is extremely viscid, I do not doubt that it is a convenience to the aphides to have it removed.] [Although I do not believe «that any animal in the world» performs an action for the exclusive good of another, yet
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Sect 7. Instinctst1


animals, both in extent & direction or t2 in «not» migrating at all. So it is with «the» nests of birds, partly dependent on the situations chosen, or «on» the country inhabited «& on its temperature,» but often from causes wholly unknown to us: «Audubon gives several remarkable cases of differences of nests in the same species in the Northern & Southern parts of the United States.» So it is with fear directed towards particular ent3emies; which «fear» is certainly «an» instinctive «quality,» as may be seen in nesting birds, though «it is» strengthened by evil experiences int4 themselves & sometimes by seeing fear «of the object enemy» in other rst5 «animals». Wt6e may assume «see the case of whollyt7 acquired, yet apparently instinctive fear» others in our «own» country in the universally greater wildness of «all our» large birds, than «of our» small birds, which are less persecuted by man. In «Nothing but long-continued persecution can have given wildness to all our larger birds; for in» uninhabited islands, large birds are not more fearful than small; & our most «the magpies so» wary magpies «in England» is tame in Norway, as is the Hooded Crow in Ægypt.] [That the «general» dispositiont8 of animals «individuals of the same species,» born in a state of nature, are is extremely diversified, can be shown by an abundance «a multitude» of facts. Many «Several» cases, t9 also «could be given» of odd & aberrant «occasional & strange» habits in certain species could be given, which might «if advantageous to the species» give rise «through natural selection»t10 to quite new instincts. But I am well aware that these general statements,, without any «the» facts «given» in detail, can produce but a most feeble effect on the reader's mind. I can only repeat my assurance, that I do not speak without good evidence.]
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[t2 The possibility or even probability of inherited variations of instinct in a state of nature will be strengthened by briefly considering the case of «a few cases in» «not yet»t3 our domestic animals. We shall, also, thus be enabled to see thet4 respective parts which «the» selection habit & the selection of so-called accidental variations «have» played «in modifying these mental qualities.» A number of cut5rious & authentic instances could be given of the inheritance of all shades of dispositions & of «tastest6 & likewise of the inheritance» of the oddest tricks associated with certain frames of mind or periods of time. But let us look to the familiar case of «the several breeds of» dogs: it cannot be doubted that some young pointers (I have myself seen a most striking instance) will «sometimes» point & even back other dogs, the very first time that they are out taken out: retrieving is certainly in some degree inherited by retrievers, & a tendency to run round, instead of at a flock of sheep, by shepherd dogs. I cannot see that these actions, performed «by each breed» without experience, by the young, & in nearly the same manner by each individual, performed with eager delight «by each breed» & without the end «namely the» being known to the animal,-- for the young pointer can no more know that he points for the go use of «to aid» man, than does the white butterfly know why it lays its eggs on the leaf
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of the cabbage,— I cannot see that these actions differ essentially from true instincts. If we were to see one kind of wolf, where young & without any training, as soon as it scented its prey, standing motiont2less like a statue; & then slowly approach «crawl forwards» with a peculiar gait; & another kind of wolf instead of rt3ushing at, its round, instead of at its prey «a herd of deer» & driving them to a distant point, we should assuredly call these actions instinctive. These domestic instincts, as they may be called, are certainly far less fixed or invariable than natural instincts; but they have been acted on by far less rigorous selection, continued for an incomparably short4ter period, & under less fixed conditions of life.

How strongly these domestic instincts & dispositions are inherited «& how c» «& how curiously they become mingled» is well shown when different breeds «of dogs» are crossed. Thut5s it is known that a cross of a bull-dog has affected for many generations the disposition «courage & obstinacy» of greyhounds; & a cross of this latter breed will «long» give for generations «to a family of to the shepherd dogst6» a tendency to hunt hares. These domestic instincts, when thus tested by crossing, behave like natural instincts, which become cut7riously blended & long show «for a long period» traces of either parent:
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Origin of Species 1st edn, draft leaves
Ms p 242 Sect VII Instinct
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[torn] breed from the best pointers «which will stand best.» On the other hand, [undefined] habit alone in some cases has been sufficed; no animal is more difficult to tame than the young of the wild rabbit, scarcely any animal is tamer than the young of the tame rabbit; yet I do not suppose that «domestic» rabbits have «ever» been selected for tameness; & I presume that we must attribute the whole of thet2 mental «inherited» & inherited change «from extreme wildness to extreme tameness» St3imply to habit & continued close confinement.

«Natural instincts» Instincts are lost by disuse under domestication; & a remarkable instance of this is seen in those breed of fowls, which most rarely or never become "broody" or wish to sit incubate «sit on their eggs». Familiarity alone prevents us seeing how remarkably «universally & largely» the minds of our domestic animals have been «largely greatly» modified «by domestication». It is scarcely possible to doubt that the lovt4e of man has become instinctive in the dog. And how changed in other respects our dogs have All the t5 species of the Dog & «wolves, foxes, jackallst6 & all species of the» Catst7 family «genus», when Kept partly tame, are most eager to attack poultry or sheep & pigs; & this tendency has been found inveteratelyt8 «incurable» with «the» dogst9 themselves, when «which have been» brought «home as puppies» from savages as those of Tierra del Fuego & Australiat10 who do not Keep «other» domestic animals.
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Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Ms p 269 Sect VII Instinct
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standing in connection «relation» with an «an» imperfect condition of the male sex; for in bullocks of some breeds have horns much «proportionally» longer «than in other breeds, in comparison with» than thot2se of the perfect bull or cow. Hence I can see no real difficulty in any peculiarity becoming correlated with the sterile condition of social insects: the difficulty lies in «seeing» how such correlated modifications of structure could have been slowly accumulated in any profitable direction by means of natural selection. This difficulty, though appearing at first insuperable, is lessened, or as I believe disappears, when it is that selection may be applied to the family, as well as to the individualt3, & may thus gain the dest4ired end. Thus a «well flavoured» vegetable is cooked & is of fine flavour & the individual «is» destroyed; but the horticulturalist sows seed of the same stock & confidently expects to get nearly the same variety: breeders of cattle wish the flesh & fat to be well marbled [supermarks ] together, the slaughtered animal which has «has been slaughtered;» this meat cannot breed «propagate its Kind», but the breeder goes «with confidence» to the same family .t5 & confidently expects theret6 to get the desired character; I have such confidence «faith» in thet7 powerst8 of selection, that I do not doubt by wa carefully watching which «individuals» bulls & cows «when matched» produced
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quite unknown: in the Mexican Myrmecocystus, one caste of the workers «of one caste» never leave the nest, are fed by the other workers, & have an enormously developed abdomen t2 «which» secretes a «saccharine fluid» sort of honey, for the other ants, & this «which» seems to supply the place of that «excreted by the» aphides, or «the » domestic cattle «as they may be called» which our aphides «European ants» Keep at «guard or» imprison.] [It may «will» «indeed» be thought that I have an overweening confidence in the principle of natural selection, when I do «do don't can» not at once admit that such wondrous & well established facts do not «at once» annihilate my theory. Recurring to the simpler [text torn and lost] of a neuter insectst3 «all «of» the same Kind & all rendered ren [text torn and lost]» made by natural selection [one word illegible] fertile males & females; analogy would lead me to suppose that any slight profitable modifications would at first be transmitted not to all the neuters «in the same nest,» but to some alone; but that fr «by the long» continued selection of the parents which produced «some» such neuters, all «the neuters» would finally «ultimately» comet4 to have the desired profitable «desired or profitable» peculiarity modification. Hence «on this view we might expect» we ought tot5 find cases of neuter insects of the same species & in the same nest, presenting gradations of structure; & this we «often» do «find, even often find» considering how few neuter insects «out of Europe» have been examined carefully examined. Mr F. Smith has shewn (' I have made many measurement) how surprisingly
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Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Ms p 277 Sect VII Instinct
1858.11.13-1858.11.30
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"natura non facit «saltum"»" has is applicable to instincts as well as to corporeal structure, & is plainly explicable on our theory «views», but is otherwise, as it seems to me, inexplicable,— all tend to corroborate the theory of «inheritance &» natural selection. So again does the very general fact of closely allied, but certainly distinct species, when inhabiting distant parts of the world, & exposed to considerably different conditions of life, yet «often» retaining nearly the same instincts. For instance we can understand on the principle of inheritance, how it is that the Thrusht2 of S«outh» America lines its nest with mud in the same peculiar manner as does our British thrush; how it is that the male Troglodyte of North America, builds «"cock-nests",» like the males of our Kitty-wrens, "cock-nests" to roost in, «— a habit» unlike «that of» any other Known birds. Finally, it may not be a logical deduction, but to my imagination it is, far more satisfactory to look at «such instincts as» the young Cuckoo ejecting its foster-brothers— , ants making slaves, «— the larvæ of» ichneumonidæ feeding within the live «live» bodies of caterpillars,— not as «instincts» specially given by the Creator, but as very small parts «consequences» of of one general law, leading to the advancement of all organic beings;— namely, multiply, vary, let the strongest Live & the weakest Die.]
  • t1 Sect 7. Instincts] boxed
  • t2 Thrush] 'T' written over 't'
Reproduced with the permission of the Edinburgh University Library, Special Collections Department and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
  • 1. Pencil note at top of page: 'end of Chapter VIII [sic] of Origin p. 297'. Verso notes in pencil: two algebra problems; the lower in more juvenile hand.
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Edinburgh University Library MSS E 2001.13
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Ms p 277 verso
1858.11.13-1858.11.30
Document Extent: 1 sheet  

Editorial symbols
Reproduced with permission of Edinburgh University Library, Special Collections Department and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
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Lehigh University Libraries Special Collections
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Chap 8 Hybridity
Summary & Headnote
Document Extent: 2 sheets  

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(277

Hybridity


Distinction1 between the sterility of first crosses & of hybrids — sterility various in degree, not universal, affected by inter-breeding, of probably removed by domestication — Laws governing the sterility of Hybrids — Sterility «not a special endowment but» incidental on other differences — Causes of the sterility of first crosses & of hybrids — Parallelism between the effects of changed conditions of life & crossing — Fertility of varieties when crossed & of their mongrel offspring, fertility not universal — Hybrids & Mongrels compared independently of their fertility.— Summary.—
Courtesy of Special Collections, Lehigh University Libraries, and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
  • 1. Notes for a geometrical exercise by George Howard Darwin written in rose ink over the first several lines.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 142
Miscellaneous letters from and to C. R. Darwin and others. Also individual leaves and fragments of Cirripedia and Origin, drafts
Origin draft, Ms p 324 Sect VIII Hybrids
Folio Extent: 1 sheet

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185: 142r



(324

Sect VIII. Hybridst1


this perfect general & perfect fertility surprising, when we remember how liable we are to argue in a circle on this point; & «when we remember» that the gretert2 number of varieties have been produced under domestication by the «man's» st3election of mere «mere» external «& not constitutional» difference «& not of differences in the reproductive system.» In all respects, besides fertility, there is a closer general resemblance between hybrids & mongrels. Finally, then, the facts too briefly given in this chapter, do not seem to me opposed, but rather to support the view that there is nt4o fundamental difference between Species & Varieties.

185: 142v

Notes on parallelogams.1



  • t1 Sect VIII. Hybrids] boxed
  • t2 greter] CD rendering of 'greater'
  • t3 s] rewritten
  • t4 n] rewritten
Reproduced with the permission of Professor Richard Darwin Keynes, the Syndics of Cambridge University Library, and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
  • 1. Probably by George Howard Darwin.
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Smithsonian Libraries (Dibner Library of the History of Science & Technology) MSS 405 A
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft leaves
Ms p unnumbered page [Sect 9. Geology]
[1858.12.11]-[1859.01.15]
Document Extent: 1 sheet  

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show2 how slowly they have been accumulated. Let him remember Lyell's profound remark that the thickness & extent of all sedimentary formations are the result & measure of the degradation which the earth's crust has elsewhere suffered. And what an amount of degradation is implied by the sedimentary deposits of many countries! Prof. Ramsay has given me the following measurements «maximum thickness, generally from actual measurement, in a few cases fromt1 estimates» of the each formation in Grett2 Britain; & this is the result,

   feet
 Palæozoic strata ⎯⎯⎯⎯  57, 154
 (not including igneous beds)
 Secondary strata ⎯⎯⎯⎯  13,190
 Tertiary strata ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ 2,240

Making altogether 72,584 feet; That is very nearly thirteen & three-quarters British miles. On the Continent some formations «are» poorly represented in England, are thousands of feet in thickness, which are poorly represented in England.3
Physical Characteristics: wove paper; grey; bottom edge cut; pinholes
  • t1 from] written over 'by'
  • t2 Gret] CD rendering of 'great'
Reproduced by permission of Smithsonian Libraries and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
  • 1. DAR 158: 37 '1858', 'Dec 11th Geological Succession' and DAR 158: 38 '1859', 'Jan 15 th Abstract. Geograph. Distrib:'
  • 2. The absence of a page number is unusual, and is the only occurence in the extant pages of this Ms.
  • 3. The excision at the bottom of this sheet suggests it was autographed by CD to be given as a souvenir, and later cut. Cf. autographed page Ms p 338, also in Chapter 9.
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Smithsonian Libraries (Dibner Library of the History of Science & Technology) MSS 405 A
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft leaves
Blank page, verso of Ms p unnumbered page
[1858.12.11]-[1859.01.15]
Document Extent: 1 sheet  

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[Blank page]
Physical Characteristics: wove paper; grey; bottom edge cut; pinholes
Reproduced by permission of Smithsonian Libraries and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
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Sales Catalogues Christie's, New York 17 December 1983
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft leaves
Envelope identifying Origin Ms p 338
Envelope with note; by Robert L. Tait
Document Extent: 1 sheet, 2 envelopes  

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Sales Catalogues Christie's, New York 17 December 1983
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft leaves
Additional envelope for Origin Ms p 338
Envelope with notes; by Robert L. Tait & Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Document Extent: 1 sheet, 2 envelopes  

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Sales Catalogues Christie's, New York 17 December 1983
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft leaves
Ms p 338 Sect 9. Geology
[1858.12.11]-[1859.01.15]
Document Extent: 1 sheet, 2 envelopes  

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(338

Sect 9. Geologyt1


M.S of part of Origin of Species

that the several formations do not follow each other in close sequence, but are separated from one another by wide intervals. When we see the formations tabulated in written work, or «even when we» follow them in nature, it is difficult to avoid believing them to be closely consecutive. But we know for instance from Sir R. Murchison's great work on Russia, what wide gaps there are there «in that region» between the «superimposed» formations [illegible] by piles of sediment charged with fossil remains so it is in N. America & other parts of the world. «Now» the most skilful geologist if his observations «attention» had been «exclusively» confined to those large territories, would never have suggested that «during [several words illegible]» [several words illegible] great piles of sediment charged with new & peculiar forms of life, [several words illegible] «elsewhere» being accumulated. And if in each separate territory not even the most hardly any idea can be formed of «the» length of time which has elapsed between two consecutive formations, we may infer that this can nowhere be told. The frequent & great changes «(a)»

insert (a) reconstructed

[in the mineralogical composition of consecutive formations, generally implying great changes in the geography of the surrounding lands, whence the sediment has been derived, accords with the belief of vast intervals of time having elapsed between each formation.]1

[But we can, I think see why the «the» geological formations

June 26th. 1871.— Charles Darwin
  • t1 Sect 9. Geology] boxed
Reproduced by permission Christie's, New York and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
  • 1. The approximate text is reconstructed from Origin 290.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 109af26r
Childrens' drawings on verso of Origin leaves
Origin Ms p 355 Sect IX Geology
[1858.11-1858.12]
Document Extent: 26 sheets   Folio Extent: 1 sheet

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185: 109a (26r)


(355

Sect 9. Geologyt1


marine inhabitants of the archipelago now range thousands of miles beyond its confines. And analogy would lead us «strongly» to believe that it would be chiefly these far ranging organisms, «species» which would «oftenest» give rise to new varieties, which for a period would remain local, & then would might ultimately spread & supplant their parents. «And» According to the principles followed by many palæontologists when these varieties «when they reached under this new form» «where they had supplanted their parents;» if resenting ever so small «if they presented» any permanent difference «, however slight, they» would be ranked as «new» species.] If there be any degree of truth in this view.

[If, then, there be some degree of truth in these remarks, we have no right to expect to find in our geological sections an infinite number of «those fine» transitional forms, which on our theory assuredly have ct2onnecting & «which» «must» have connected all species past & [text cut and lost] «long» [text cut and lost] branching «& diverges «& diverging»» chains «of life.» All that [text cut and lost]

into forms must once have existedt3

185: 109a (26v)1



  • t1 Sect 9. Geology] margin score; boxed
  • t2 c] text cut and lost
  • t3 into forms must once have existed] in right margin; crossed
  • 1. Water-colour of house. Cat in attic, birds and trees behind house, initialled 'FD'.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 109af26v
Childrens' drawings on verso of Origin leaves
Drawing: House
Document Extent: 26 sheets  
Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 109af24r
Childrens' drawings on verso of Origin leaves
Origin insert (a) to Ms p not located Sect IX Geology
[1858.11-1858.12]
Document Extent: 26 sheets  

Editorial symbols

185: 109a (24r)


(a) In some of the lowest azoic rocks, phosphatic nodules & anthracitic layerst1 have been discovered, which seem to indicate the former existence of life.--

185: 109a (24v)


Watercolour by Francis or Horace Darwin, part of [Christmas Piece]



  • t1 layers] written over 'layers'; in pencil
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 109af24v
Childrens' drawings on verso of Origin leaves
Drawing: Carrot
Document Extent: 26 sheets  
Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 109af22r
Childrens' drawings on verso of Origin leaves
Origin Fair Copy p 23 Chap VII Instinct
[1858.08.17]-[1859.05.15]
Document Extent: 26 sheets   Folio Extent: 1 sheet

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185: 109a (22r)

23

Chap. VII Instinct.


«Slave-making instinct.--» We will now turn to the extraordinary slave making instinct of certain Ants. The Formica (Polyerges) rufescens «, as was first discovered by Pierre Huber, a better observer even than his celebrated father,» is absolutely dependent on its slaves. Wt1ithout their aid the species in a single year would certainly become extinct. The males and females do no work: and the workers or sterile females, though most energetic and courageous in capturing slaves, do no other work «when the community is once established.»> They are incapable of making their own nests or feeding their own larvæ: when their old nest is found inconvenient, and they have to migrate: it is the slaves which determine the migration, and actually carry their masters in their jaws. So utterly helpless are the masters, that when Huber shut up thirty of them without a slave, but with the food which they like best, and with their own larvæ and pupæ to stimulate them to work, they did nothing: they could not even feed themselves, and many perished of hunger with food close at hand. Huber then introduced a single slave (F. nigra «fusca» and she instsantly set to work fed and saved the survivors: male &

185: 109a (22v) Birds singing and insects flitting, watercolour by Francis Darwin or Horace Darwin

  • t1 W] written over 'w'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 185: 109af22v
Childrens' drawings on verso of Origin leaves
Drawing: Birds and Butterfly
Document Extent: 26 sheets  
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.1: 70r
NS II Rudimentary Organs-68 Note
Prospective title for Natural Selection & note on 'nascent' organs
[1857.03.00]-[1857.09.00]

Editorial symbols

On the
Mutability of Species1

"    Whewell "

by
C. Darwin, M. A, F.R.S.

John Murray.    .— .  — — 1860!!t1
10t2
"Nascent wd. be good term applied to organ in contradistinction to "rudimentary" «"aborted"»— How hard to say, though utility forms the «clear» criterion which is nascent & which rudimentary, though we can say positively that some «many» parts are rudimentary — are penguins paddles

Physical Characteristics: light-weight wove paper; grey; bottom edge torn; left edge torn
  • t1 On the…John Murray.—1860!!] crossed in brown crayon
  • t2 10] added in brown crayon
Reproduced with the permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
  • 1. This is the earliest known draft title for what became the Origin, projected here for publication in 1860. However, the brown crayon crossing and portfolio number suggest that CD kept it for the note on 'nascent' organs.
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American Philosophical Society Library B D25.57m (APS 163)
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft
Prospective title for Origin of Species, March 1859
Document Extent: 6 draft sheets, 1 title page  

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At1n abstract of an Essay

on the

Origin

of
Species and Varieties

Through natural selection

Charles Darwin M. A

Fellow of the Royal, Geological & Linn. Soc's.



--------------

London

& & & &

«1859»



  • t1 A] written over 'a'
Reproduced with the permission of the American Philosophical Society and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
  • 1. Darwin gathered from Lady Lyell in a note before 28 March that Murray, who was Lyell's publisher, might be prepared to publish Darwin's species book. Darwin then checked with Lyell about the possibility in the letter of 28 and then wrote to Murray.
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Sales Catalogues Marlborough June 2005
Origin of Species 1st edn, draft leaves & related materials
Murray's List of Announcements, April 1859
1859.04.00
<1--printed matter-->
Reproduced by permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History