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DAR 205.5 -- Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 1r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-1 Printed Material
Review of Marsh G P 'Lectures on the English language' 'Athenaeum': 123
Printed; by Anon
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 1v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-1 Printed Material
Review of Marsh G P 'Lectures on the English language' 'Athenaeum': 124
Printed; by Anon
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 2r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-2 Printed Material
The fossil crab of Gay Head '(Boston) Society of Natural History, Journal' 9: 192
Printed; by William Stimpson (breaks off)
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 2v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-2 Printed Material
The fossil crab of Gay Head '(Boston) Society of Natural History, Journal' 9: 191
Printed; by William Stimpson (breaks off)
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 3r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-3 Printed Material
Lacaze Duthiers on coral 'Reader': 110
Printed; by Editors
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 3v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-3 Printed Material
Lacaze Duthiers on coral 'Reader': 110
Printed; by Editors
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 4r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-4 Printed Material
Anatomical characters of limpets 'Popular Science Review' 10: 115
Printed; by Editors
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 4v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-4 Printed Material
Anatomical characters of limpets 'Popular Science Review' 10: 115
Printed; by Editors
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 5r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-5 Printed Material
Review of Owen R (Eight papers on the fossil mammals of Australia) 'Sydney Mail': [1]a-d [full sheet]
[1871 or after].08.23
Printed; by Johann Louis Gerhard Krefft
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 6r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-6 Printed Material
Blood-relationship (2) 'Nature' 6: 173
Printed; by Francis Galton
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 6v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-6 Printed Material
Blood-relationship (2) 'Nature' 6: 174
Printed; by Francis Galton
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 7r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-6 Printed Material
Blood-relationship (2) 'Nature' 6: 175
Printed; by Francis Galton
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 7v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-6 Printed Material
Blood-relationship (2) 'Nature' 6: 176
Printed; by Francis Galton
Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 8r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-7 Note
[nd]

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Motacilla alba. Europe (1)
⎯⎯ Yarrell's. England & Norway (2)
In summer when (of latter.) whent1 breast black, son is the back in male = in female has breast black, back lighter.—
⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯
latter, ort2 «how» English kind rather larger, more white on the wing, but not so much as in Lugulris (& third continental species) & (latter common eastern portions of Europe.— «& Indiat3») long lugulris black spot behind beak, & coret4 of eye.— lugulris well marked species
Slight difference of beakt5

M. neglecta & flava
  |    |
England  Continent} peculiarities of Plumage—}

11t6


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  • t1 when] retouched
  • t2 latter, or] added in fine hand; in lighter ink
  • t3 «& India»] added in fine hand; in lighter ink
  • t4 core] conjectured transcription
  • t5 Slight difference of beak] added in fine hand; in lighter ink
  • t6 11] added & encircled in pencil
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 9r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-8 Abstract
Geoffroy 'Mus Nat Hist ann' 1
[nd]

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Physical Characteristics: wove paper; off-white; folded
Reproduced with the permission of The Natural History Museum and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 10r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-9 Note
[nd]

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Furnarius
rufus
alandifrenit1
longirostris

Opetiorhyncus
N platensis
fuliginosus
parvulus (a) analogy
lanceolatium (b) an
(c) an

Agrophila. phœnicura
-----? parvicola

Synallaxis nigra
t2 russogularis
malurides
flavogularis
brunnea
؟ ægithalorides

rufus
annumbrist3


Limnorium rectorostus
Pamba of Spix??t4 Grayii hirsutus
ruficipes

Oxygurus tripineære
dorsomaculatus

Language only will express the analogies with distant parts of nature. brackets might be used to show affinities & analogies in nearer parts, & where the relation to external circumstances are not clear.— ؟whether have anological brackets on one side & affinities on other

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  • t1 alandifreni] conjectured transcription
  • t2 ✓] in pencil
  • t3 rufus
    annumbris] in pencil
  • t4 Pamba of Spix??] in pencil
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 11r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-10 Note
1248 Limnornis...
[nd]
Document Extent: sheet numbered 23   Folio Extent: sheet numbered 23

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(at1
1248
Limnornus

Maldonado. La Plata (June)
Frequent the rushes. & other aquatic plants on the borders of a lake,

[one word]t2 about which it crawls actively.—t3

Eyton1 shows oste Anatomical description of Opetiorhynchus Furnarius agree,2 I show, note, & red feathers on wing allied yet, beak & habits differentt4

insects [...] no [...] sext5

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  • t3 Limnornus / Maldonado…it crawls actively.—] heavily crossed; in dark pencil; lightly crossed; in ink
  • t4 Eyton shows ‹oste›& habits different] added in pencil
  • t5 insects [...] no [...] sex] inverted horizontal; torn; crossed; in pencil
  • 1. Thomas Campbell Eyton, 1809-80. .
  • 2. With regard to agreement in the anatomy of Opetiorhynchus and Furnarius, see for Eyton's description of O. vulgaris, where he states 'the structure of the soft parts, both in this species of Opetiorhynchus, and the two following ones, so closely resemble that of Furnarius…that one description will almost serve for the whole.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 11v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-10 Note
Synnalaxis œgithloides...
[nd]
Document Extent: sheet numbered 23   Folio Extent: sheet numbered 23

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grains [...] little stones & berriest1

Synnalaxis œgithaloides. Valparaiso still closer tom tit, which is replaced by this present species.— long doubted whether not truet2 — tomtit.— resembles them in behaviour, form, & habit of life.— beak like genus Parus— «oblong» bone «form» of Nostrils covered with little feathers «on upper edge» more like Synallaxis.— Fine case of transition into forms of N. Hemisphere— comparedablet3 — running through genus— not reiterates any—t4Kittlitzt5 1

(23t6


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  • t1 grains […] little stones & berries] torn
  • t2 true] conjectured transcription
  • t3 comparedable] neologism
  • t4 reiterates any—] conjectured transcription
  • t5 Kittlitz] added in pencil
  • t6 (23] inverted horizontal; crossed
  • 1. Synallaxis, Kittlitz 1830 (www.ubio.org)
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 12r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-11 Note
[nd]

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Excellent case, of a structuret1 being devised by gradations adapted to different habits.t2
The Plata «Colaptes chiliensis campestris»t3 ground woodpecker, has beak rather less strong than in typical genera: only the less central tail feathers stiff & these not much used; claws different structures from the climbing kinds.--
Mem: trees frog. & two parrots on plains
The Colaptes campestris, very close to chilensist4
but manner of flight, cry, scarlet tuft on head «corners of mouth»t5 all connect it with true woodpeckerst6

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  • t1 structure] crossed in pencil
  • t2 Excellent case, of…to different habits.] added in pencil
  • t3 «Colaptes chiliensis campestris»] in dark brown ink
  • t4 The Colaptes campestris, very close to chilensis] in dark brown ink
  • t5 «corners of mouth»] encircled & interlined with caret
  • t6 but manner of flight…with true woodpeckers] in dark brown ink; in right margin; vertically upwards
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 13r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-12 Abstract
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 14r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-13 Note
One is astonished...
[nd]
Document Extent: 3 sheets   Folio Extent: 3 sheets

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One is astonished at animals, although adapted to very diff. habits; although bearing much great general resemblance, being formed on same type — Bats wing & paddle & man's hand — [NB animals not having great general resemblance, are not built on same structure, «mole & m. cricket»t1swallow & dragon fly]t2 on my theory, of such

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  • t1 «mole & m. cricket»] possibly added
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 14v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-13 Note
allied animals...
[nd]
Document Extent: 3 sheets   Folio Extent: 3 sheets

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allied animals, having descended from one parent, & having varied like varieties, without some actual cause, it would be marvellous if they were not built on same type — one may shorten, lengthen &c bones of hand, but far greater step

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 15r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-13 Note
to alter whole relations...
[nd]
Document Extent: 3 sheets   Folio Extent: 3 sheets

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to alter whole relations of bones although that is possible — as we see in Icthyosaurus1 — [This had better begun, if my theory be true, & animals possessing many general resemblances, be descended from &c, then & now]

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  • 1. Ichthyosaurus, Conybeare 1821 (www.ubio.org)
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 15v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-13 Note
Consider how many...
[nd]
Document Extent: 3 sheets   Folio Extent: 3 sheets

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Consider how many «common»t1 ways of catching insects on wing — Bats swallow, swift— goatsucker- fly-catchers Hawks & Woodpecker. Dragon-Fly t2

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  • t1 «common»] conjectured transcription
  • t2 Consider how many…Woodpecker. Dragon-Fly] passage crossed
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 16r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-13 Note
If— then in each animal...
[nd]
Document Extent: 3 sheets   Folio Extent: 3 sheets

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If— «——then»t1 then in each animal, traces of the changes each organ has undergone — anchylosed bones vertebræ. crania «leg bones» — = plants — —If laws of change be as I show. then peculiarities descend not useful— abortive organs —

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  • t1 «——then»] in pale pencil
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 16v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-13 Note
insects mouths...
[nd]
Document Extent: 3 sheets   Folio Extent: 3 sheets

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insects mouths — crustacea d[itt]o although it may «have» required the examination of many insects to discover that proboscis of Beet1 «Butterfly»t2 essentially consists of — — pieces. Representation of Beetles jaw — yet we here see looking only at the bee, that the organ could not have been made for partt3
How many contrivances for sucking Honey. Humming Bird— Marsupial Animal—t4

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  • t1 Bee] underlined & crossed in pencil
  • t2 «Butterfly»] added in pencil
  • t3 part] conjectured transcription
  • t4 How many contrivancesMarsupial Animal—] added in dark pencil; in left margin
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 17r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-14 Abstract
Pliny 'Nat Hist': 1.8.45
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 18r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-15 Abstract
King 'Voyage' 1: 133
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 19r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-16 Abstract
'L'Institut' 1839: 378, 397
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 20r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-17 Note

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Oct. 31 1839
No. VIII   I see several species of thrushes with black ear.— feathers — analogous case to marks on cats ears.—
11t1

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 21r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-18 Abstract
'Edin Phil Jnl' 1839: 353
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 22r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-19 Abstract
'Phil Trans' 1840: 557
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 23r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-20 Note
[nd]

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Yarrell1 says general colouring of egg goes by genera — «He will be»t1 Bound to say every Accentor somewhat blueish egg — Nothurat2

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  • t1 «He will be»] added in pencil
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  • 1. William Yarrell, 1784-1856. .
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 24r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-21 Abstract
'Phil Trans' 1835: 302
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 25r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-22 Abstract
'Phil Trans' 1839: 347-365
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 26r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-23 Abstract
'Westm Rev' 1840 on Yarrell
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 27r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-24 Abstract
'Phil Trans' 1818: 471
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 28r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-25 Abstract
Macculloch 'Attributes of deity' vol 1 pp 251ff
[nd]
Document Extent: 1 sheet folded;   Folio Extent: 1 sheet folded;

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 28v&29r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-25 Abstract
Macculloch 'Attributes of deity' vol 1 pp 251ff [replaced]
[nd]
Document Extent: 1 sheet folded;   Folio Extent: 1 sheet folded;

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 29v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-25 Abstract
Macculloch 'Attributes of deity' vol 1 pp 251ff
[nd]
Document Extent: 1 sheet folded;   Folio Extent: 1 sheet folded;

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 30r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-26 Note
Considering the endless...

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Maer June; 40—
Considering the endless generations of organisms، durng almost infinite ages. it is no wonder that endless strange adaptations, & endless strange forms produced— by the wear & tear of forms. (like fragments of rocks rounded into endless figures) — It is not strange their should be leeches, -fish & blood-sucking bats— «P»t1 1 Birds living on what other throws up— (NB in the Carrancha we see approximate habit, showing how instinct might have been formed—) In Scissor-bill we cannot show intermediate-form. ➛

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  • t1 «P»] encircled
  • 1. See verso for the inserted passage labelled "P".
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 30v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-26 Note
Kingfisher habits...

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Kingfisher habits may be seen commencing in the Bien te Veo —
P
In the Sea Birds we can shew no gradation in habit on feeding on what other birds throw up— But in Sea Eagle (quote the noble passage of American Eloquence) we can show Carrancha
Java swallows ‒ Elizabeth thinks that common Martin wets clay with saliva. see Yarrell


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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 31r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-27 Abstract
Hearne 'Travels': 386
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 32r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-28 Abstract
'Asiatic Soc Bengal Jnl' 1839: 136
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 33r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-29 Abstract
Montagu 'Dict': 51
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 34r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-30 Abstract
Robert 'Acad des Sci' December 1841
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 35r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-31 Abstract
'Athenaeum' 1840: 779
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 36r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-32 Abstract
'Asiatic Soc (B or Roy?) Jnl' 5: 363
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 37r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-33 Abstract
'Phil Trans' 1774 pt i p 312
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 38r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-34 Note
[nd]

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The relations of affinity must be judged from those parts of frame, which form during long succession, have been so «often» modified «but only indirectly from not being directly adapted» that we see no «practical» relation in them to the habits of animal— (for instance general framework «composition» of «skeleton or blood system» vertebrate)— Analogy where such relation is evident — though some of such adaptations may be affinity as feathers in birds = swift & swallow - mouse & shrewt1 striking analogies =
but ma any part long inherited may show affinity.t2 1

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  • t1 mouse & shrew] double underlined; in brown crayon over pencil
  • t2 but ma any part long inherited may show affinity.] in left margin; vertically upwards
  • 1. Interlineations in this text may be 1850s additions, perhaps correlated brown crayon underlining of 'mouse & shrew'.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 39r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-35 Abstract
'Acad St Petersburg Mem' 3: 195
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 40r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-36 Note

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Feb/. 41/
There is such disputes about affinity, linear, circular arrangement &c&c definition of species — that I cannot, as in geographical distribution‒ & — «as in» relation of fossil to recent, &c state my facts & deduce consequences‒ —but I must show, how what light the conclusions deduced from other parts bear on theset1 vexed questions — Aftert2 showing what a 'species' is add remark that question about origin of all our dogs becomes less material — it is simply whether nature or man, has transported, exposed to different climates, & selected the offspring from a common stock. — or whether these have been affected by natural or artificial means

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  • t1 these] altered from 'this'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 41r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-37 Abstract
Brande '[ref inc]' p 109
[nd]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 42r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-38 Note
Waterhouse showed me...

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May. 1841.
Waterhouse1 showed me some Curculios from Phillippine, most curiously marked with «at1» round gemmed spot «transverse» lines of small dots of do & reticulated do!! The two former kinds of marking exactly same in two genera of same general form, but good genera as shown by difference in antennæ.— I should have said «stated»t2 this «most beautiful & peculiar» character of marking in Curculionid absolutely peculiar to Phillippines — But what is more wonderful there is a Cerambyx with short horns with same general form of body & absolutely similar peculiar «gemmed» spot, until antennæ are unfolded no one could doubt they were the Curculios — so we have demonstrative evidence that some common cause has impressedt3 «given»t4 this tufting peculiarly on 2 genera of Curculio & «by selection to»t5 ont6 a Cerambyx — if it had only been the former we might have thought it from descent. Cerambyx shows it is not so — Just same case as, epidermis on many genera of «land» shells of Phillippines = several genera «groups» of insects peculiar to Phillippines, several most common to India— Such cases of Analogy, just as striking. Water. knows of in all orders, but «doubts any regular law as in Swainson»

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  • t6 on] crossed in pencil
  • 1. George Robert Waterhouse, 1810-88. .
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 42v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-38 Note
(a) / Some of the species...

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(a)
Some of the species vary wonderfully= whole bottles full of one variety, without one of another yet series from whole isld shows they must be same— so W. concludes they are local varieties like his case of Nebria— Waterhouse has never seen half so strange a case. =
Copyt1

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 43r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-39 Note
By my theory...
[nd]

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11t1
By my theory animals with tibia & fibula separate & with fibula quite anchylosed passed in old ages by insensible series (—& so with Birds & mammalia eyes) but Macrauchenia showing us the transition state is due not necessarily to it being one of the transition forms, but to its having inherited this one part of intermediate structure unaltered: so where we have an intermediate organ in an animal not exactly intermediate between the divisions having

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  • t1 11] added & encircled in brown crayon
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 43v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-39 Note
the two separate organs...
[nd]

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the two separate organs in question, we must consider such animal, as a descendant, which has chanced to preserve organ in an unaltered state — it is nothing to point how the animal has acquired this intermediate organ، the factt1 shows possibility of gradation in such organ.—

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  • t1 acquired this intermediate organ، the fact] scored in right margin; in brown crayon
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 44r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-40 Note
Relations of affinity...
[nd]

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Relations of affinity are those «directly» due to consanginuity, (& remotely to similarity of conditions??) relations of analogy are remotely due to consanguinuity (in such cases as dragon-fly & goat sucker &c perhaps not at all) & chiefly to similarity of conditions.— This solves the problem, & agrees with «Charlesworth Mag. May 18401» Stricklands notion of "system of nature" being the foundation of the differences in 2 kinds of relation.—
State according to my theory there must be three kinds of relation — then see whether there are.— Lamarck gives my whole theory.— My theory does not explain such resemblances. as snout of rat & woodcock — small eye of flyt1 & humming Bird!!! — t2

Physical Characteristics: light-weight wove paper; pale cream; watermark: J WHATMAN | TURKEY MILL 1839; folded
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  • t1 fly] conjectured transcription
  • t2 ➛] pointing to verso
  • 1. Strickland 1840. .
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 44v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-40 Note
How came Natural System...
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How came Natural System to be discovered? Was it not same sense by which one knows family-likeness —– in this sense Linnaeus was right, when he called it a latent instinct


With this explain Waterhouse's fact of carabidous-looking Heteromerous insect. & vice versâ. ⎯

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 45r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-41 Note
It is well known...
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Aug. 41
It is well known that characters which is generally same in large groups varies in some.— As form of pollen in Convolvulus, & Forbes1 mentions other cases. Again characters which generally are good as specific (thus even colour though this is the exception) serve — to distinguish varieties or individuals in others. Thus. Stephens (a) back of page.

This is remarkable analogy— I do not know whether the character which ceases to be generic in any group. ceases generally also to be specific — thus whether form of pollen-grains varies in the individual species of Convolvulus.— [ or the converse whether the mandibles of Lucanus «B.»t1 serve as generic (probably not) if so then in this my doubt is answered]. When a character varies in the species of a genus., but holds good in each species we can

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  • 1. Edward Forbes, 1815-54. .
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 45v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-41 Note
(a) Thus bracteæ...
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(a) Thus bracteæ in Orchis «maculata & form of petals» varies. & &

Stephens Illustrat1 v. 3 Append — secondary male characters of Lucanus, though so important an organ, as mandible, varies excessively — as does form of hind-legs in Necrodes. littoralis — but Stephens seems to think this connected with fertility or power in male.t1

B
A character wh. varies in the species, whether on or all cannot be good generic character, (such as diversity in shape of pollen) May be good in each species, as it may be fixed.—
t2
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 46r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-41 Note
see the parent...
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see the parent species must have varied in this character to have given rise to the species — This leads one to speculate on origin of genera; as being true relations.— These facts are also most important, as showing certain causes, tend to make not whole from sport, but certain parts: — Is this owing to action on certain parts as Iodine — or rather to certain peculiarities not being fixed.t1

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 47r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-42 Note

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Octob. 1841.
There are two or three species of Aust. Genust1 wh builds playing passages — Now as no other birds in world do — it is marvellous that these should have any all have acquired it primarily — Hence genus here shows descent.—t2

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  • t1 Genus] conjectured transcription
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 48r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-43 Note
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When I speak of old important organ not varying I must partly admit truth, & say I suspect cause that longest inherited, are earliest formed & therefore have become important to all rest of subsequently organisation— Thus head more important to vertebrates than to mollusca because earlier formed in Embryo

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 49r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-44 Note
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Facts from Gould (or another paper) of close species of Tasmanian of Euphema, which are contemporaneous, but look like lineal series pf descendants — N. B. cases where such has been preserved— Gould1 compared the coloured marks (woodcut?) to breaking of tulip.—

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  • 1. John Gould, 1804-81. .
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 50r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-45 Abstract
'Annals of Botany' 1806 2: 319
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 51r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-46 Note
Geranium pyrenaicum...
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Camp Hill Jun 5 /42/
Geranium pyrenaicum (1512 «Spirits»)


Flower, size «some» nearly «full» double «of others»— colour from purple - blue to nearly white veined with blue «;some» — different plants of different shades—. colour of anthers «& pollen varies same way» in the proportionate greater length of the five longer stamens compared with the 5 shorter.— in the degree of notching of ends of petal: in the strength of ribing of the calyx: colour of stigma. (period of its opening?)
leaves «vary» in size «breadth,», depth of green. hairiness—t1

=I can perceive no difference in pistil in length or size relating to calyx.=
stems in elongation & hairiness.—t2

=no difference in nectarys — abortive flowers secret honey abundantly=
The flowers in wh. all stamens are abortive always smallest-- whole plant abortive — the pale flower far oftener abortive — only one dark blue «abortive» I noticed.— There is however, difference in size of «several of the» non-abortive flowers— In the gretert3 number of abortive plants all the stamens short & abortive — in some only the five shorter stamens abortive «& in one flower almost gone» & on same plant some «most» flowers all fertile entirely abortive — this it is interesting finding part only abortive.— in one flower on this bunch (in spirits) only one perfect stamen, in another four «; in another 3.» .— when all are abortive, the 5 lower ones are most abortive & shorter—

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 51v&52r
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51v & 52r [replaced]
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51v

cultivation = how far self sown=t1
These plants were brought Park Fields, have sown themselves. extendedt2 & fought with coarse grass fern &c. grow along base of low stone wall. «not in much shade»
I find on other visit they vary greatly in height & thickness of stems, some being nearly double in height & thickness of others — in shape of leaves. some being coarsely fingered, others nearly circular & finely deitaledt3. & general habit, so that— I at first thought two species — the pale flowered «fertiles» ones «Are the» highest.— general growth, & leaves vary much more & leaves vary much more & corolla less than in G. phaeum.— this is good case of different tendency to vary in two species of same genus in different parts.—



52r, passage 1

These geraniums eminently dichogamous. visited by innumerable Bees = must cross-- self sown= inported.—t4
close to wall of camp-hill— furze. Heath & broom=
Seedlings? All the flowers, abortive & not «so», appear to seed equally well; but the seeds yet quite miniature. & the german equallt5 swollen, & of same appearance.



52r, passage 2

=Most plants bear all «(or nearly)» fertile or all ^t6 abortive flowers= The different varieties affect in small degree to be in groups, «but» all mingled into one long continuous bed—

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 52v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-46 Note
In abortive mature flower...
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Int1 «abortive» mature flower, anthers reach 2/3 up length of calyx, in Mature they stand equal in height toot2 the bristle at summit of calyx.— anthers brown & withered ‒filaments very short merely a point just reaching above the united base of united filaments. — In buds, even in very early ones, long before even calyx has opened & whilst sti pistil short point, there is same disproportion in size especially of anther & filaments as in mature flowers «but no other differences»t3.— colour of anthers at this age about same, but in older bud, the anthers are «yellowish» then brown«ish» in abortive, flowers whilst they are greenish, then pinkish in perfect flowers.— In early bud when «only» some «of the» stamens «are» abortive, & some not, contrast striking. I cannot perceive traces of pollen int4 buds just on point of opening — anthers look [one word illegible] «mere» shrivelled capsules= Plants now in full flower =

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 53r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-47 Note
Sterility Abortion also...
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Maer June 6th./ 42/
Maer
Sterilityt1Abortion alsot2
These notes show how little change produces varietiest3
(Dried Specimens)
The Geranium phæum «(or var: fuscum. W. Hooker)» was severalt4 years ago cultivated in garden, & was thrown away or planted in plantation— it has now spread itself «no doubt by seed. from distances & distinction of changes» in a shady «damp» wood, extensively, & forms many large clumps. The plants vary considerably in colour from the darkest cholcolate. (wh. Elizabeth believes was original colour. «but now is one of the least frequent» through various shades of pinks & purples. to a pale purple. so as to form quite a nosegay «when tied together». [Yet till my attention was called «from Camp-Hill Species» I overlooked this fact!!] size of flower varies «considerably» & flatness & degree of reflexion, «& sinuosity of edges» & amount of pointedness of the petals — in one plant petals almost distinct «one from another» & diamond shaped & calyx seen between them.«in other only petals make nearly a circle.—» In centre of each flower, pale specks, size & degree of paleness & width of the purple veins differs — the green of the

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 54r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-47 Note
of the leaves...
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of the leaves & the sharpness of their indentations varies— in some flowers outer edge of petals entire, & slightly sinuous, in others rather deeply cleft—

These flowers dichogamous, frequented by Bees = yet The different varieties affect to be in «distinct» groups, only occasionally mingled together — as original plant cultivated in garden & now run wild & fighting against weeds — conditions can hardly be considered mer «more» favourable — or at least «as» excess of food— if variation depends on excess of food, it is such as nature herself readily suppliest1, it does not depend on man.—t2
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 55r
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NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-48 Note

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Waterhouse Aug. 42. Showed me a most beautiful series from broad Cicindela to tree Cicidela. (just like ants) to ones with still narrower necks & so on to Odecartha— But he doubts whether essential characters graduate.—

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 56r
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Waterhouse1 has never heard of nocturnal Bees. —where is analogy here.— Says moths flit round flowers like Bees— doubts whether they ever carry pollen.— I have see Humming Bird Sph with proboscis yellow with pollen of Verbenat1 t2

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  • 1. George Robert Waterhouse, 1810-88. .
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 57r
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The Curculio & Cerambyx «from Phillipines»t1 of insect wh were spotted & resembled each other, do not belong to the group wh. Macleay1 had fixed on as analogues. Waterhouse2 has given up all law in analogues — used to think each group contained an analogue in groups of equal value

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  • 1. William Sharp Macleay, 1792-1865. .
  • 2. George Robert Waterhouse, 1810-88. .
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 58r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-51 Note

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11.t1
Where an animal has two means of performing same function, as some reptiles breathing byt2 branchiæ & lungs & some Mollusca, we can see that two families closely allied might easily be produced one breathing solely by branchiæ & by lungs like the two great families of Spiders — Will this apply to the generative systems of some gasteropoda — is there a kind, which is either has  Aug /42/
bt3


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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 59r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-52 Note
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There is so much union of character in Picidæ, that probably descended from one stock — so of petrels — yet we have an awk & duck-billed petrelX — this must be adaptiont1 & not a remnant of a parent intermediate race— so with woodpecker — the ground & flying division — is Sound? Consult Swainson for parallel cases—
Now then might be parent of great groups.t2

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 60r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-53 Note
Aberrant groups...
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Aberrant groups Hensleight1 1 remarks that groups are aberrant because they are few in number — it is doubtful how fart2 thist3 holds with genera— I look at aberrant groups as "living fossils".—  Ap/43/  
overt4


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  • 1. Hensleigh Wedgwood, 1803-91. .
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 60v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-53 Note
If aberrant genera...
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If aberrant genera have few species proof of extinction, for the a genus wd. not be less aberrant whether or no many species. as ornithrhyncus & Echidna. ‒ Apteryx.—

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'Linn Trans' 4: 281
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Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
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Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
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Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 69v
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Bicheno1 shows that here & there there exists a distinct natural family (the «comparative» value of which he remarks is very difficult to compare), but that many natural families are imperfect (ie blend together) & are small, [(wh involuntarily seems, I think, to come in small degree into element, ) Itt1 is difficult to make ornithorhyncus equal to all Mammalia.—] This is exactly what wd be expected, if naturalness of families depend simply on amount of extinction — If all were preserved there could be no natural families or species.— Certain forms however may have been much more diversified than others.— Some one uncommon form may have gone on altering, & never branching out into many species, another may have gone ont2 producing infinitely many species.—

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  • 1. James Ebenezer Bicheno, 1785-1851. .
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For Waterhouses views...
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For Waterhouses views two groups must be taken, & hist1 view must refer to species only — (though this is difficulty) for in his insistence of Bizacha, his argument applies to both species of Bizcacha.— So that in the higher groups his law applies to genera, & therefore his statement wd be that the alliance was not generic, but where genera are allied, relation not specific — I suspect requires much hesitationt2; can only be true by my theory owing to extinction— & Lepidosiren is exception. The most that ought to be said is that his law holds in many cases, & in two well defined groups, ie descended from distinct parent stocks.— t3

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The rarity of...
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The rarity of intermediate existing groups depends on law of «genera» community of advantage causing common increase & the reverse — rarity of fossil intermediate depends on small proportion preserved.—
___
Lepidosiren & ornithorhyncus, descendants perhaps modified of intermediate links.

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After having read...
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June 25— 1843 —
After having read some notes of Waterhouse1 on Mammals‒ I see that there are very few «intermediate» links between families. indeed such a half-way link wd form a new family. The link can generally be classed on either one, or other or third side. By my theory families far apart, have descended from some remote stock & there never will be any forms intermediate between the two, but between each, perhaps very different & the common centre.— this is important.— «Hence we shd never find an exact half way between Rodents & Marsupials. but between them latter & some unknown form & Rodent & same unknown forms.»t1 «but if Marsupiata were likt2 parent form, then you might»t3 I argue against circles, as inevitably giving idea of groups of equal value, which is an assumption without standard of comparison.— The circles touching represent equal affinities — this is at bottom of probability of Quinarian system.—  I suspect alliance of the links to other families is by saltus of a certain organ, thus Owen2 has discovered that vagina of Bizcacha is divided in Rodents, one

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  • t1 «them latter &…same unknown forms»] text extends downward into right margin
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  • 1. George Robert Waterhouse, 1810-88. .
  • 2. Richard Owen, 1804-92. .
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of the groups...
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of the groups taken as a whole near the Marsupiata, & — thus of this group the Bizcacha has one character much nearer.— How is this? Is each part altered separately by selection? or old «character retained?»t1
Waterhouse thinks most of the affinities between the grett2 families are "adaptive". This term vague & requires definition. Thus wombat is supposed to lead off by its teeth to Rodents, but teeth of Wombat really an Marsupial structure, but form of teeth merely adaptive.— The characters drawn from such parts as are common to several forms with different habits are best sign of real affinities & not being adaptive — thus vertebrate structures & such peculiarities in teeth as run through whole of Marsupiata— though here we get into vagueness, for

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  • t1 or old «character retained?»] added in pencil
  • t2 gret] CD rendering of 'great'
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there seems some...
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there seems some remote affinity between Marsupials & Rodents.—
Number of species. ie variations on one common type. I suspect silently. comes into play in classifying.— Waterhouse says zoologist classify by "rule of thumb".—
W. says that at bottom! of large groups characters wider apart — from this argument he wd put Marsupials into Mammalia & not mark them groups of equal value. wh is absurd, I think — Says same thing occurs in Reptiles—
W. Says (in Zoolog Proc. 1841?) Tarsipes rostrata1 an extraordinary Marsupial with scarcely any teeth described.—  Is not this Honey Sucker??t1 2

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  • t1 Is not this Honey Sucker??] added in pencil
  • 1. Sic: T. rostratus synonym: T. rostratus Gervais and Verreaux, 1842, Honey Possum (www.ubio.org).
  • 2. See for CD's speculation 'How many contrivances for sucking Honey. Humming Bird— Marsupial Animal—' (added margin note).
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July /43/
As all groups by my theory blend into each other, there could be no genera or orders «in same sense that no part or branch of a tree can be said to be distinct»t1 in a «perfect» systema naturæ fossil & recent — but for the existing ones at any one period— these terms useful، implying not separation, but that the species of one genus are more closely related to each other, ، than to the species of another genus.— not that any barrier exists between these two series of species
(overt2


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a tree...

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a tree not good simile — endless piece of sea weed dividing
[see drawing in Ms]


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Newport 'Linn Soc' 19 March 1844
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 March 44
Bell1 tells me in late lecture he put Unity of type in striking way, viz. "that whenever there was any deviation of habit from the typical group, such deviations were effected by a modification of its own organism & not by organs drawn from other groups.— function of the tongue «is an»t1 «organ of taste» toad, chamelion, woodpecker, giraffe.— ort2 ribs for respiration.— sailing lizard,— walking serpent— tortoise— &c &c. Shells of Gasteropods protects heart &c &c. in Testecella, subterranian, wants shells at tip of tail & has it, but under this terminal tail shell lies the heart &c.!
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  • 1. Thomas Bell, 1792-1880. .
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It is an hallucination to suppose that Quinarianism can be explained by air, earth & water — if it were only analogical resemblances it might be, so.— But as Botanists make number of groups. & no aërial plants, better to omit whole subject— March: —44—

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I suspect that...

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March 31. /44/
I suspect that typical implies having many speciest1

Swainson's statement (& Waterhouse independently to me) that typical genera (which implies with respect to larger group) (for Ornithorhynchust2 can only be considered non-typical with respect to Mammifers) have wide ranges (⸮ converse may still hold good?) is important; for the genera which are not typical are only rendered so by the extinction of allied genera, & that implies they are less adapted than other groups of genera to the theirt3 world & their co-inhabitants — & therefore one might expect they wd be less widely distributed: they «(as genera)» wd be rare, for they have or are descreasing in number — like individual species.—
[good]
Mem. Westwoods contradiction in Linn: Trans:—

In another sense Balanus Octomeris aberrantt4
Octomeris type of Sessile — Pollicipes of Thoracica whole ordert5 t6 1

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  • t4 In another sense Balanus Octomeris aberrant] inverted horizontal
  • t5 Octomeris type of‹Thoracica› whole order] text extends upward into left margin
  • t6 In another sense‹Thoracica› whole order] added in dark pencil
  • 1. uBio: Cirripedia Burmeister, 1834; Thoracica Darwin, 1854; Pedunculata Lamarck, 1818; Sessilia Lamarck, 1818
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v. Hooker's letter on what Typical means. I do not doubt it only refers to extinction. or rather fewness of forms .= Hookers statement makes fewness of osculant groups a truism.—
Linn. Trans. vol 18 p. 417.1 it is very curious that "so aberrant a form" (Silphomorpha &c. & 4 carabidous peculiar genera) "should be found in regions so distant in N. America, Brazil & N. S. Wales. This fact alone I shd imagine must be considered sufficient to prove that a wide geographical range is not the character of a typical group. as stated by Mr Swainson". [it rather proves converse ie. that some «non-»typical groups have wide ranges.—]

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  • 1. Westwood 1841. .
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April /44/
Waterhouse1 seemed to admit that probably all analogical characters, resolve themselves into adaptive—
Some of these cases he thinks very loose.—

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  • 1. George Robert Waterhouse, 1810-88. .
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Saw a Mastodontond tooth...

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April. 20. /44/ Sawt1 a Mastodontondt2 tooth at Strzelecki. — Fal Falconer1 says Owent3 2 has got traces of Australian marsupial Mastodon! How my theory settles genealogically, that marsupials equal Placental series!—t4
Falconer says Goodsir3 in Brit. Assoc. has written capital paper on teeth. In very early stage. (it is case always) upper incisors of Rudiments discoverable.= These rudimentry organs resolve themselves into similarity of fœtal states = Insisted on importance in Botany of rudimentary or abortive organs.—t5 «This does not agree with Edentata»t6

Waterhouse4 remarked (on Benthams5 law of variability of abortive parts) that or made some remark that in Edentata, the teeth in species vary, though not in individuals.t7 — study this.— feet very irregular.—

W. was discussing with Strickland6 case of

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  • t4 April. 20. /44/…Placental series!—] passage crossed in pencil
  • t5 Insisted on importance…or abortive organs.—] double scored in right margin; in brown crayon
  • t6 «This does not agree with Edentata»] added in pencil
  • t7 Waterhouse remarked…not in individuals] double scored in left margin; in brown crayon
  • 1. Hugh Falconer, 1808-65. .
  • 2. Richard Owen, 1804-92. .
  • 3. John Goodsir, 1814-67. .
  • 4. George Robert Waterhouse, 1810-88. .
  • 5. George Bentham, 1800-84. .
  • 6. Hugh Edwin Strickland, 1811-53. .
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W.' law of affinity & made out that owls & Hawks meet at Athene & the Harriers1 ‒but in each of these cases is the point in which, say Athene, approaches Hawks. it does not particularly approach the Harriers.—
W. says seemed baffled by Lepidosiren. Says he wrote chiefly for Mammals— a broken series, so that Macleay2 says genera «of Mammals» [one word illegible] correspond to families in Plants.=
W. seemed to admit «after Hooker» that typical relates to number developed in any form.—
W. complained of Owen's manner of comparing part of animal to Reptile & part to Bird, without summing up importance of their relations.
W. It seems that Stonesfield Didelphys has not angle of jaw turned in. & ∴ wants most important Marsupial character — itermediate between Marsups & Insectivora=
Falconer says some Coal-Plants of India cannot be put by Brown3 in any class.—

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  • 1. Athene, burrow owl. Harriers, Circus, a group of hawks. (www.ubio.org)
  • 2. William Sharp Macleay, 1792-1865. .
  • 3. Robert Brown, 1773-1858. .
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Jun /44/
Facts like that of the striking similarity of the gull of La Plata & Europe, might be addressed, as causing doubts is the greatest stickler for species, whether to consider them species or races.—

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July 19/44./ Waterhouse tells me that out of some of the Coccinella's from the Columbia River some are highly variable, like some of the Europæan species. — Opposed to being effect of external conditions. W. compared it to domestic animals, but why shd nearly all our domestic animals vary?
Says he cd give me more casest1 Settling Point dodt3 Tertiary Patella's1 vary???t4
W. compared variation of certain speices to variations in the low genera in each class— thus Edentata differ most in their vertebræ &c. —t5
Classification   11t6


Hooker believes 700 Lichens are really only a few.
Owen yet maintains that Lepidosiren a fisht7

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  • t1 Says he cd give me more cases] in left margin; vertically upwards; partially boxed
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  • t3 dod] abbreviation of: 'dittoed (conjectured)'
  • t4 Waterhouse tells me…Tertiary Patella's vary???] crossed in brown crayon
  • t5 W. compared variation…vertebræ &c. —] double scored in left margin; in brown crayon
  • t6 Classification   11] added in brown crayon
  • t7 Hooker believes…Lepidosiren a fish] crossed with wavy horizontal line; in pencil
  • 1. Patella, a Gasteropod, i.e. snail, genus (www.ubio.org).
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The Earwig is case of a genus in an abnormal group, being very abundant in individuals & species??
July 31 /44/

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Forbes1 thinks law, that when genus arises, then it will die, because when it arose conditions best adapted —(how wonderfully agrees with my views) — hence Africa or India birth-place of Elephant — will publish on this—

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  • 1. Edward Forbes, 1815-54. .
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'Athenaeum' 1844: 978
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Waterhouse.1 Aug. 44
[see drawing in Ms]
Ichneumons prick with ovipositor believes no poison; never was stung..—
| Westwood2 says he has beent1
Andrew Smith3 on fangt2 of Poison-Snakes
There is a Cuckoo Bee with cuckoo Habitst3


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  • 1. George Robert Waterhouse, 1810-88. .
  • 2. John Obadiah Westwood, 1805-93. .
  • 3. Andrew Smith, 1797-1872. .
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Aug./44/. Waterhouse says in Brit Museum, series of Chinese Swallows nests showing that the amount of impurities varies much— Mem Spitzbergen case of the swallow which make roof with spawn to nest—
Instinctt1


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Nov. /44/ After the "Vestiges of «Nat Hist» Creation",1 I see it will be necessary to advert to Quinary System, because he brings it to show that Lamarck's willing (& consequently my selection) must be erroneous— I had better rest my defence on few English, sound anatomists naturalists assenting & hardly any foreign.— Advert to this subject، after Chapter on classification، & then show، from our ignorance of comparative value of groups, source of error—
   Explanation of numbers from elements.—
Difficulties in classification. myself are ample — Milne Edwards2 & Dana3 — a Feather wd turn Balancet1

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  • t1 Difficulties in classificationwd turn Balance] added in light pencil; in left margin; vertically upwards
  • 1. [Chambers] 1844. . CD had a 6th edition, 1847 copy of the book (see ). Given the date of this note, Darwin was aware of its contents soon after its first printing in Oct 1844. See the letter of J. D. Hooker, dated 30 Dec 1844, in which he comments 'I have been delighted with Vestiges, from the multiplicity of facts he brings together, though I do [not] agree with his conclusions at all, he must be a funny fellow: somehow the books looks more like a 9 days wonder than a lasting work...' .
  • 2. Henri Milne-Edwards, 1800-85. .
  • 3. James Dwight Dana, 1813-95. .
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   Dec./44/
Forbes1 says that lately in Berlin's Transactions Müller2 has written on Amphioxist1, confirms Goodsirs observ in Edinburgh Royal Transact3، & concludes that Amphioxis is much further from the Cyclostomes (as Myxine) that any of them are other from other fishes! upper part of inside stomach lined with vibratile ciliæ, «No Brain — [one word illegible] eye, both ends sharp.»t2 & Goodsir remarks that it is allied to lowest of Mullusca, as Ascidiæ!!! Forbes remarked of this beautiful interbranching. no trees ever can be preserved — fossil state.t3

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  • t1 Amphioxis] misspelling of: 'Amphioxus'
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  • t3 Forbes remarked…— fossil state.] double scored in left margin; in pencil
  • 1. Edward Forbes, 1815-54. .
  • 2. Johannes Peter Müller, 1801-58. . Müller 1844.
  • 3. John Goodsir, 1814-67. . Goodsir 1844. .
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= Jan – 45 =
When we think of fossil Mammifer of S. America, India & Australia, all of late times & that Mammifer have lived since the Secondary epochs & swarmed in the Eocene— any Quin arrangement through the known forms with a Numerical arrangement must be false— Still more with Birds, «stronghold of Quinarianism» which we find in numbers in New Red in Secondary & in Tertiary— Yet all the fossils all belong to present system, & those may fall into same genera, how many from new genera, families & orders ?t1 — how then can any «many» not yet known!! — How then can any arrangement of genera & families into Numbers be true?— If it is so «shd prove so, when all known», we at least no evidence as yet.

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When an organ is very different from others of series, as eyes of Loligo1 – does not the group stand isolated – as the Cephalopoda— How is this in Electric Fish— in Venomous snakes
Feb‒ 46


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  • 1. Loligo Lamarck, 1798, a Cephalopoda (www.ubio.org).
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Waterhouse 'Entomolog Soc' 3 March 1845
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Waterhouse has read paper to show (May 45) that typical genera. (ie with organs well balanced are mundane of wide distribution, some peculiar to temperate & some to tropical climate — that are aberrant few in number of species (NB which makes them aberrant) have narrow ranges. «(ie they are groups which are becoming exterminated.»t1 All this deduced from insects = same as Hooker. = But there is exception in water insects, which have all wide generic distribution & in parasitic insects as in Chalcidicæ.
Stylops & Earwigs opposed to this.—t2
Waterhouse remembered that in great groups.— most of the genera, might be reduced to onet3, 2, or 3 or 4 main types, with some quite different character — thus tapir — pig. & horse, 3 groups which will include almost all— tapir including most.

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Falconer showed me...

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June — 45/
Falconer1 showed me beautiful series of Elephant & Mastodon, with structure of teeth, in every point & general structure blending in each other.— In that series the two living the American Siberian species & one Indian alternate with each other & hence not descent. Why not? as it certain that recent were created subsequently to the extinct it is probable.— How many more species unknown!!! Waterhouse2 says analogous series in Arvicola & Mus— gradation between fo rooted teeth & rootlesst1  ➘

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  • t1 rooted teeth & rootless] double underlined in pencil
  • 1. Hugh Falconer, 1808-65. .
  • 2. George Robert Waterhouse, 1810-88. .
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in one intermediate form...

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in one intermediate form, one has roots only when young & another only when old. [The Mastodon has trunks in lower pair only when young; Indian Mastodons have none. As Indian Elephants trunks only on one side Falconer does not believe Burchell, from habits of Indian Elephant.]. The gradation in teeth «of Mice» does not Waterhouse insists represent «true» series, as judged chiefly by skulls of heads.—

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Dec. 25.— 45t1
11.t2
«Family» Genus & species cease to have Meaning, when we collect every species wh. has lived «only individuals left.» But even if all were collected «the whole series wd not be a net, but» Generat3 familyies &c would «not be a net» be branches in trees, with their extremities not united. At any one epoch genera & species obviously exist; genera from extinction oft4 «that is» from only certain «of old» species having sent down descendants, & species exist «are real, partly from same cause & partly» because the greater number of species at no one timet5 are are varying. Nor will the & «Nor will» the greater number will become extinct, without «ever» trans mitting descendants to a future epoch— Species are real, in the same sense ast6 races of our domestic animals are; & man easily distinct from each other,— « & are often generally separated by barrier of infertility.—» There is no definition to know a race from a variety, nor none to know species—
Var. IVt7 1

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  • t1 Dec. 25.— 45] boxed
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  • t3 'era' of Genera] written over 'us'
  • t4 of] conjectured transcription
  • t5 time] written over 'are (conjectured)'
  • t6 as] written over 'are (conjectured)'
  • t7 Var. IV] added & crossed in brown crayon; in left margin; vertically upwards
  • 1. Natural Selection Chap. 4, Variation under nature.
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The affinities of organism...
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(1
July 1847.
11.t1
The affinities of organisms are represented by distances — species being called dots by their being placed thus
... ..............   .....       ...... .. .........    .......
As this arrangement leads to idea of common genetic causation, as we see with chemists in properties of elements, we are led to compare things thus arranged to branching of tree، & may be said to diverge from common stem.—

Begin with stating facts— universal at all times & places— overlooked from familiarity.— —genus not an entity.— Begin with single species vars— action of divergence.

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the same causes which..
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the same causes which favoured several species will make others —& when once formed into large genus, we Know these are the very groups, which do vary most & thereforet1 will give m rise to more varieties & thus give divergent characters.— Here again we have resemblance to most great finest tree in which 2 or 3 great branches from some accidental advantage have exterminated remote «the other.» These affinities are represented drawing the lines of stem

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What a vast range...

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Sept 47— What a vast range of character in the Branchipoda & Entomostraca, «(which are embryonic groups?—)» compared with the Podophthalma & Edriothalmat1.— So in plants what a diversityt2 in the lower orders — So in fish a great range in the lower or near progeny have embryonic forms.— Waterhouse remarked that «in» all low groups parts of great group, characters are of less value., ie more variation— ie more broken groups.— If we get more varied characters, it implies more extinction: hence most low groups & therefore probably first formed have suffered most extinction. Had better be stated, that those parts of groups which are known to be the oldest, & those which are lowest & which as general rule are the oldest (known to be case with plants) are most broken — Fish Cartilaginous fisht3 though oldest are not lowest, but embryonic.— Are not the Cephalopods much broken, [undeciphered mark] case of fish.—   How comes it that highest t4

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The sea once occupied...

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Fish & Mollusca have been exterminated & Reptiles
The sea once occupied by Reptiles, those fish most related to reptiles & by the highest Mollusca — how came it, that its present inhabitants are lower? We must except Cetacea & seals— The Mollusca oddest case.— Have crustacea anything to do with this?

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Brown R Appendix to Tuckey's 'Congo voyage'
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Brown R Appendix to Tuckey's 'Congo voyage'
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Feb. /48/ Owen says that there is organ in Rays' Tail anatomically certainly like electrical organ; but Mattenci cd not perceive trace of electrical emission.—

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Fulgora (a Hopteroust1 insect) Elater & Lampyris «these somewhat allied» all shining case of different orders with same peculiarity, comparable to Electrical Fishes
July /48/


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Waterhouse 'Rodentia' 1848: 268, 338
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I have been...

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Dec. /48/. I have been much struck in Anatifera how the genus, (& I have no doubt universal, as evidenced by sub-genera) breaks up into little groups — hence those who use Dignostict1 character have generally to refer to only 1 or 2 or 3 species— So again species break up into groups of varieties

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Genera again in...

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Genera again in same family are united into little groups— so throughout animal Kingdom — so children even in same Family.— It is universal law.—

[see drawing in Ms]t1


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[Cause of non-passage...

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Jan 7. /50/. [Cause of non-pasage of forms in any of Geological Formation, & the sudden coming in of New group explained, hypothetically]. — When we look at any Geolog. formation we soon begin to see how many years its formation must have consumed, when we study it we are generally deeply impressed with prodigious length.— Thet1 intervals of time between each formation — generally believed in (except by foreign catastrophists) yet «almost» hypothetical «except where upheaved & worn down strata»، & we are liberal when those who take this view will probably in their own minds conclude that they give to the intervals ample time when they consider they are equal to periods of dep accumulation. Some even ignorantly think that accumulations are somewhere always going on. — The view propounded by me «in S. America» wd lead to conclusion that intervals exceed accumulation‒ But to make accord with species theories; we must look at each great formation, consuming time making head giddy is a mere unit, & that all the formations may be compared to some ten or twelve units taken out of a series of say perhaps some several thousand,

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as an example...

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as an example of what I mean some imagine all languages even Chinese. English & Hindustani «Indo-germanic derived from one stock, assume this as true.» are derived from one source Indo-germanic, & therefore cd be traced passing to each other.— some authors imagine «Even» Semitic & Indo-germanic may have had a common source.— Now suppose we were to «destroy every «trace of an» language» take between present time «English» & such old «the parent of Semitic &» language, only say 2 languages, there wd be nothing like a passage except English & the hypothetical parent language of the Indo-germanic & Semitic — comparable to pleistocene & Silurian formations «to Chalk Secondary—» formations & then if we were to discover some two or three books wd it reveal to us a passage. certainly not — it wd be a new «so many new» species of language related to intermediate between ten known ones, but not passage.—

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August 1850
How all-pervading & deeply seated is the affinity of organisms, the Naturalist feels, who after examining a group of beings, & perhaps with still [illegible] more impressively after examining ancient animals, comes back to some well-known form. & now see that some obscure ridge, or point or curve or suture observ «before absolutely overlooked» is clearly connected with some grett1 point of structure in the animals which he has lately been examining.— [one or more words illegible] [letter illegible] ridges &c are evidently unimportant & were overlooked — «The Naturalist must marvel over this.—» What does this mean? I answer lineally descended or co-descendants from common stock, & receives same explanation as likeness in same race or family.
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Against my theory...
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May 7th 1851.
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Against my theory, it may be urged & has often occurred to me, that there ought to be intermediate forms — but I forget not half-way between bird & Reptile, but some third form equally connected with both. — But there is another consideration, that from the mouse in which we see groups in same «order or» class are connected, we shd expect not «a form» an intermediate in every character, but like in one part to «the» one side & in another organ to another. And this at once give rise to extreme difficulty in knowing what would be intermediate. Look to the Proteo.— of Owen said by that greatest authority to be a true fish,1 but «by» many eminent zoologists to be a Reptile: this then

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  • 1. Owen 1841.
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cannot be far from...
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cannot be far from an intermediate form.— If seriest1 be given to imagination, it will not be found very easy to make a form intermediate between any twot2 classes— «which wd. be generally recognised» from the as such, owing to the different importance attached by different naturalists to different parts.— Wd the ornithoryhnchus. have been kept as a mere division of the Marsupiata, if it had been covered with hairs «feathers» instead of hairs?
In fact Mammalia, Fisht3, Reptiles are so far already connected, that, when we look at only

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the typical forms...
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the typical forms we expect that are intermediate form wd be something wonderfully different, which is erroneous— Make classes of ornithoryhnchus «Labyrinthodon— Sauroid Fishes»Proteosaurust1 1 «& [one word illegible] branchial Batrachian» & & we shd. have intermediate forms.— A great development «as grett2 as in Fish» of these forms at the extreme of the classes wd almost break them down..— It wd be a marvelous chance if we were to hit upon the exact intermediate form، & indeed they existed before Silurian system.—
To trust much to «geological» negative evidence، is to trust to 2 or 3 volumes out of some score,, devoted to history out of a large library destroyed by fire .&c.—

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  • 1. Home 1819.
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[I think the Classes...
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[I think the Classes of animals more specialised.— a Chonoid1 fish is eminently fish-like.— a brachynus crab. eminently crabt1-like — a Balanus eminently cirripedial.— The record in Mamalia & Birds too imperfect.— The thecodont Reptiles not the most specialised — Labyrinthedon not the most Batrachian.—
Mollusca we do not go early enough Insectt2 far too imperfect.—

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  • 1. Apparently sic 'Chondroid'.
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Schleiden 'Lectures on the plant'
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Oct. /51/. Woodward speaks of aberrant groups being the oldest (& consequently the widest distributed) As aberrant are fragments preserved of the Most exterminated portions of the series, this may be true.— C. D.—
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'Edin Rev' October 1851 [refs inc]
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'Edin Rev' October 1851 [refs inc]
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In a monster...

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Feb. 28 /53/. In a monster, ever so monstruous (give examples) we have no doubt of species, because we Know «have idea of» parentage: so in sexual differences, let them be ever so great, so it sometimes happens that a form«though» widely suddenly, abnormally different, yet we have occult idea that it belongs, that it has affinity with group.— As in Alcippe & Cuscuta, though so different, yet some points of similarity, show this relationship. Now this occult idea, turns into plain parentage on my theory.—
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The wonderful diversities...

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The wonderful diversities of sex & wonderful metamorphoses (give case of Ibla) are so far important, as they show form as form quite similar, as 1' larval stage, how by laws of growth they can become dissimilar. The facts are of no other use. There is no analogy. «But» oft. young larva can turn into male or female & old larval Ibla in the short duration of its life, we can at least see possibility of equal changes during successive generations 1

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  • 1. Cf. Feb 1835 Essay. DAR 42: XYZ .
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Feb. /53/. It is an old argument, but seeing the possibility wonderful metamorphoses, whether in egg or womb, or as free animals, which all undergo, it is strange, that the possibility, I do not say probability, of a germ in course of ages undergoing equally grett1 changes, has not modified our dislike of the view.—

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Sept. /54/ It seems at first surprising that one organ shd. vary in one group & be so constant in another (Westwood v. 2 p. 821) as antennæ in Terebrantia & Aculeata — but on my view it simply results from selection not modifying one part in one case, butt1 in another
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  • 1. Westwood 1839-1840. . See the illustrative example that Darwin is referring to, where it is stated that the construction of the antennae (and the abdomen and ovipositor) "offer the most satisfactory characters for classification", i.e., so constant, in Terebrantia, but which "become almost useless from their uniform structure", i.e, vary, in the Aculeata on the referenced page of this work.
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John Murray1 2 scorns Forbes Ideal Morphology «osis»t1 & Owens remark that "Morphology being «somewhat» different from induction".
It appears to me an hypothesis is assumed, confessedly false, & «yet» found highly applicable: hypothesis often assumed to explain facts doubtful, as dispersive or undulating theory of light.— yet never is science before one taken confessedly false.
  for the petals of a primrose, never in its young state, or in its parent's state has been a leaf — (though it may become so)

Remember Fern leaf, how it seems to actually turn into inflorescence.t2

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  • 1. John Murray, 1786?-1851. .
  • 2. J. Murray 1845. This work was brought to Darwin's attention by Hooker. See letter of J. D. Hooker to Charles Darwin, [23] Mar 1845, in which he notes 'With regard to Morphology (Vegetable) ... I shall send you a little pamphlet on the Doctrine, written by the man "Murray", which will I hope have a salutary effect on your course of study..' .
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Assuming species approximately constantt1, if extinction has fallen near & around the aberrant genera, then creation has fallen on the typical & largert2 genera.— We can see the «look far into» future by looking to the larger groups.—t3
Nov. 54
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Nov. 54
We include all in class, as «in» Crustaceæ, which are connected, but yet which no definition will define,— a proceeding explicable on descent.—1

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  • 1. This note may record the point where CD turned his concerted attention to the issue that had been hanging fire since the end of Notebook E in 1839, namely: formulating what became the Principle of Divergence in Natural Selection 227-50 and Origin 111-29. It is one of a substantial out pouring of notes written on a grey wove paper in October and particularly in November 1854, many of which CD dated individually. This specific note is unusual on two counts. It is one of only a few in this series that was written in pencil and it was written in what, for Darwin, was an unusually jumpy handwriting. Compare the hand in this note (DAR 205.5: 148) with CD's steady hand in DAR 205.5: 149. Also compare the jumpy pencil writing in DAR 205.5: 148 with a typical pencil annotation in DAR 205.5: 147. What then made CD's hand jump as he wrote this note? In his Autobiography 68-9, he wrote:

    But at that time I overlooked one problem of great importance; and it is astonishing to me, except on the principle of Columbus and his egg, how I could have overlooked it and its solution. This problem is the tendency in organic beings descended from the same stock to diverge in character as they become modified. That they have diverged greatly is obvious from the manner in which species of all kinds can be classed under genera, genera under families, families under sub-orders and so forth; and I can remember the very spot in the road, whilst in my carriage, when to my joy the solution occurred to me; and this was long after I had come to Down. The solution, as I believe, is that the modified offspring of all dominant and increasing forms tend to become adapted to many and highly diversified places in the economy of nature.

    We suggest that DAR 205.5: 148 is a plausible candidate for a note written in pencil as Darwin's carriage bumped along one of the lanes around Down House. But if this is correct there are two important qualifications, which make this more than a curiosity. First, this note would then not only be a record of the event remembered in the Autobiography, but it would also be the first in the series of notes dated November 1854. Second, the content of the note is in fact not the full blown Principle of Divergence, instead it is a statement of the problem of divergence. To paraphrase the note, 'only descent explains why classification produces a branching pattern'. This sets the problem; but how does that branching occur? Perhaps the solution had already occurred to Darwin during the course of the carriage ride. But he actually first enunciated the core idea in note DAR 205.9: 250 [1854.11.01], written on the same grey wove paper: 'There is no law of Progression, but times wd. give better chance of sports, & allow more selection; & all the organisms thus living an advantage, — a «free» competition of labour,— the result wd be more complicated & more perfect' (emphasis added). If this is the correct sequence, then DAR 205.5: 148 must also have been written on 1 November 1854, thus dating the problem and the solution to the same day. Sixteen years and one month after the Malthus episode, drawing once again on political economy, Darwin thought he saw how selection could produce the diversity of life.
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Nov. /54/
It is indispensable to show that in small & uniform areas there are many Families & genera. For otherwise we cannot show that there is a tendency to diverge (if it may be so expressed) in offspring of every class, & so to give diverging tree-like appearance to the natural genealogy of the organised world.1
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  • 1. CD's thinking in this passage is at the interesection of his long standing interests in geographic distribution and classification. But one can also understand this passage as shaping the impetus for CD's field and lawn experiments at Down, which began a few months later in Summer 1855. In these experiments, he focussed on establishing diversity, quite literally as he says here, in 'small & uniform areas'. In this November 1854 note, the small 'area' of interest is a small geographic range. By July 1855 CD would focus on a field adjacent to the Sandwalk (see DAR 205.5: 157) and simultaneously on a three-foot square plot in the Sandwalk wood (see DAR 205.2: 119). Then in 1856 he would begin observations on a patch of unmown lawn (Lawn Experiment Note, Down House EH 88202556), and in 1857 he would set up his 'Weed Garden' in the Down orchard (Experiment Book 24-5). Thus in 1855-1857 he would initiate increasingly systematic experiments in which he used small plots as minimal experimental units of geographic range.
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I think an order...
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I think an order with a few genera wd. appear more aberrant, if these few had each few species, & the aberrance might be said to be due to this fewness & therefore it wd. be a truism to say large aberrant groups had genera with few species; but I do not see that this bears on aberrant genera having few species, & indeed in Hookers list some of the aberrant genera had 20 & 30 species. One cause of error (if، as is probable such there be) wd. add strength to law of fewness of species in aberrant genera, namely that the few species of such genera، if many had been

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developed wd. probably...
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developed wd. probably have been types of new genera.— Some aberrant genera may also, likely really rank equal to families, ، its species or sections of species wd. rank as genera, but if so this, again, wd. add strength to the law.— It may be said that of a set of genera that is reckoned typical which has most species & most widely diffused; but then according to this all the other genera, wd be aberrant, but I have taken one or two genera, the most aberrant genera in each great group.

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 151r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-136 Note
To explain why...
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Nov./ 54/. Tot1 explain why the species of a large (& consequently & polymorphous genus, will hereafter probably be a Family with several genera, we must consider, that the species are polymorphous & widely spread, & therefore exposed to many conditions & several aggregations of species: they will occasionally mingle with a new group, & then on the principle, that the most diverse forms can best succeed,, it may be selected to fill some new office. & mere chance wd. determine the origin in a large genus & some new & good modification.—
11t2


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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 152r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-136 Note
The diversity of nature...
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The diversity of nature has been an old theme of admiration. By my theory no limit to oddnesse, except gradation — Here insert a type of oddnesse— Cephalopods with one arm converted into a parasite— My complementary males— alternate generations — Alcippe. Mullers wonderful creatures — Annelids with tails — procreation of intestinal worms &c &c.‒ The man with the [illegible letters] boldest, fancy wd. never have thought the odd structures effected by nature.
11t1    Nov/54/t2


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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 153r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-137 Note

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May 5 /55/. Huxley showed me the drawings of auditory organs in Crustacea in Tail — every character — like ears in Cirripedes.— No gradation apparently can come into play.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 154r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-138 Note

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Think over all cases of Stings to show unity of type. Spiders & Hundred legs. «Scorpion — ovipositor. — Snakes. — teeth. Are «Have» common Spiders perforated m jaws? nettle stings — «medusæ stings» ants stinging with mouth many insects eject acid from mouth.—
What structure of Sting Ray. ‒
Oct 17th/54/


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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 155r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-139 Note

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Aug. /55/
If we had not Known the Platypus, how impossible we shd. have held it to have had anyting intermediate between Birds, Reptiles & Mammifers

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 156r
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11t1 t2
Aug./55/1 Those who believe in distinct creations, would argue with respect to division in groups, that if A is made adapted to certain conditions, under slightly different, but analogous conditions, as on mountain summit, another species B wd have to be created, & so on. And if species were all representative species this wd. hold good, at least primâ facie : but habits &c of species of same genus are often so very different, that this will hardly suffice. still less in worst cases will it hold with genera; why shd. otter, dog, cat belong to same Family? because all carnivorous. Why Bat, seal & Hare belong to same. Why shd. the water Ranunculus be a Ranunculus at all, it meets with no conditions analogous to the land Ranunculus. Why Cuscuta a Convolvulus.—

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  • 1. There appears to be a change in the wove writing paper Darwin was using in August 1855. Since at least October 1854, he had been using the light grey paper that this note is written on. But the August 1855 note, loose sheet tipped into the Questions & Experiments Notebook (), is the voucher specimen for a slightly lighter grey paper, which he carried on using until at least October 1855.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 157r
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NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-141 Note

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Aug 19 /55/ owing to power of propagation not only as many individuals crowded together, but "forms" for more can be supported on same area, when diverse, than when of same species (here discuss cases of many genera in several spots & conditions «Trifolium at Lands end. Larch wood.1 Coral isld. Hooker facts») — as when many individuals crowded together some will die, so will forms. creations cause death extinction — like birth of young causes death of old.— All classification follows from more distinct forms being supported on same area.
11t1


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  • 1. Larch wood was a part of Great Pucklands, the field belonging to Sir John Lubbock, that is adjacent and to the West of the Sandwalk at Down. A section of the field was a larch plantation. In July 1855, CD and Miss Thorley, the Darwin childrens' nurse counted the plant species in Great Pucklands and clearly included the Larch wood section of the 'field'. See letter to J. D. Hooker, 5 June [1855] 'Miss Thorley & I are doing a little Botanical work (!) for our amusement, & it does amuse me very much, viz making a collection of all the plants, which grow in a field, which has been allowed to run waste for 15 years, but which before was cultivated from time immemorial;' (Also Natural Selection 230-31.) In CD's statement that 'All classification follows from more distinct forms being supported on same area.' we see not only the intent behind the Thorley plant count, but also a juncture between CD's theoretical musings and experimentation at Down. .
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 158r
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The Reason why what are called important organs offer best character is that they are not directly concerned to external condition— Brain Heart & lungs may be adapted to airial, terrestrial, semi-amphibian life—
Nov. 28 /55/
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Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-143 Note
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Waterhouse urged that if all fossils were collected & mingled with recent there wd yet be divisions & groups.
11t1
W.1 went quite as far as Bentham2 about genera turning into Families, instanced Nyatele .— «Heteromera fromt2 S. America» says Forbes3 wd. only consider genus as group.— It is clear cannot weigh thet3 value of groups. Says plenty of cases of species in a genus, & as soon as several species found allied to one of the 2, then raised into 2 Genera. Hence probably those genera having on average only 2 or 3 species, according to structure alone, shd. form ever more genera & so on averaget4 have even fewer species.—

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  • 1. George Robert Waterhouse, 1810-88. .
  • 2. George Bentham, 1800-84. .
  • 3. Edward Forbes, 1815-54. .
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 160r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-144 Note
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In Ch on Classification show how far my theory goes.
Beyond classes we can say only that germinal vesicle — the cellular structure, chemical composition, «to a large extent well evinced in action of poisons» laws of growth «nutrition» & generation, would indicate by analogy that all living beings descended from not from 4 or 5 animal types & as many or fewer vegetable types, but from one single created «prototype.» protoplasm.—

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 161r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-145 Note
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In Black horses being brown & grey horses being dark when foals — in in silver grey rabbit being black & Himalaya rabbit being black we see some sort of parallel to changes to embryological law of gretert1 resemblance of young birds—
How curious it would be to observe plumage of young poultry.—
11—t2


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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 162r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-146 Note

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On relations of organization — Turkish Dog — Hairless.— I think Cetacea most abnormal in teeth, & hairless.— Next order Edentata, fossil rodentt1— a relation of same sort, but Sloth & Anteater are hairy.— The strongest exception to law appear in Hippopotamus, & M & Rhinoceros, «but there were wooly Rhinoceros» less striking in Dugong & Manatee.— Ornithorhyncus a strong exception.— Whales can hardly be said to be hairless for adaptation for seals are hairy.—
May June 1. /56/
Talk to Waterhouse
11t2


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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 163r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-147 Note
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All Mammals have something in common, as warm blood & high cerebral development «mode of reproduction, aerial resperationt1 — certain poisons common to all—» &c &c, as contrasted with Reptiles.

Now mundine changes may be of two kinds, one which will favour increase of number of all Mammalia. in wol — and secondly such changes as tend increase & decrease not the total number, but the number of subdivisions, such as «often repeated» geographical att2 & climate changes &c &c. — changes of this latter kind tend to affect all kingdoms of nature almost equally.—

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 164r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-148 Note
families of races...
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205.5: 164r1


families of races. has been replaced by others— The races of Auchenia, would naturally have gone on increasing in number, less favourable varieties being lost, & certain useful— types being multiplied. wider sub genera being formed, until a more powerful division being introduced— the numbers become stationary, decrease.— a few being retained, which naturally would be isolated, as in aberrant families. & these at last would be lost.— As there is much relationship between Auchenias & Ruminants (& even Horses) so the chances are some one «or two» types of Auchenias might remain, for as long as mammiferous type is preponderant the number of divisions in it will be increasing).— As long as numbers of «individuals»t1 in any great class remain constant or increase, the number of divisions will tend to increase, but as soon as they «diminish», some of the forms will die out, for all the forms will «change which» decreases the total number, will almost certainly effect some forms more than others.—

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  • 1. DAR 205.5: 163 was pinned to DAR 205.5: 164. Darwin left a gap of several inches at the top of 164r. Although the text reads perfectly continuously from 164v to 164r, 163 can be understood as something like an insert or note appended in this gap.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 164v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-148 Note
If physical mutations...
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If physical mutations of world go in cycle (probably endless combinations) yet organic not so, for each form bears impress of ancestors & is related not only to the cyclical external conditions, but to the progressive organic world.
11t1


We see sub-genera of dogs.— cabbages, potatoes.— Hence without seeking cause we might expect it in nature.— Cause no doubt is that when a form is domesticated it is distributed & exposed to many conditions & selected to vari various sub-ends.— When a particularly variety happens to be formed it spreads largely & is again subjected to variation. Should some analogous animal take place of dog, then is so much common in nature of all races of dogs that all probably would be exterminated.— Thus, we may instance Isid. G. St Hilaires prophecy that the tame Auchenias (are there many races?) of S. America will be lost through introduction of Cattle & Sheep & Horses in S. America.— So if Australia had breeds of Marsupials this would have happened.— Probably in plants some

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 165r
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-149 Note
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Each genus, each family, radiates from a centre & if it were required to draw the characteristic parts,— instead of describing them by languages, it would I think be necessary to give type (as in family «order») of Hawks & then give the extreme variations in different lines — in the f. beetles-hawk— carrion-vultures - Carranch &c &c.— —
shows if we had to describe by drawing a race of men— we should take type: & deviations.—
— This puts the non-linearity of nature strongly. —. —.

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 166r
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NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-150 Note
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11t1
which is most probable that two birds, should be separately created in N. & S. America— with scarcely any difference in form. yet with such curious resemblance in habits as standing on cattles back,— (Mudraket2 sound see Audubon &c) in parasitical propagation — or that the same influence which allows every dog to turn round before he sleeps &c— & has altered its form from Greyhound— bull-dog.— or if that amount not allowed, as much (& much must be allowed) as each reflecting observer chooses to allow—
V. Zoology of Beagle's Voyage

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 167r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-151 Note
With respect to...
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With respect to whether Galapagos beings are species. it should be remembered that Naturalists are prone, fortunately, to take their udeas which are arbitrary & empirical, from their own faunas, which in this case is only true criterion.— Hence it is highly unphilosophical to assert, that they are not species. until their breedings together has been tried.—
With respect to the six puppies. if a hare was introduced, or a spe became more numerous (from death of its destroyer) or other cause. the long legged race would prevail, even if hare afforded only 10th part before & now formed eigth part.— or if other findingt1 diminished, total number of dogs would diminish. whilst the long legged variety would prevail.— Not separately. NB. These views quite exclude the idea of domesticated animals changing—

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 167v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-151 Note
From these views...
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From these views we can deduce why small islands should posses many peculiar species, for as long as physical change is in progress or is present with respect to new arrivers, the small body of species would far more easily be changes.— Hence the Galapagos Isls. are explained. On distinct Creation, how anomalous, that these smallest newest, & most wretched islds should possess species to themselves.— Probably no case in world like Galapagos. no hurricanes.— islds never joined. Nature & climate very different from adjoining coasts. admirable explanation is thus offered.— From these views, one would infer that Mullusca would offer few species, or rather be very slowly changed & vertebrata much so.— so far true, but do not fish offer a most striking anomaly to this. Have they wide ranges? Agassiz has shewn that they most widely differ

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 168r
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NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-152 Note

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Dec. 1856
What are called important parts vary seldom.— & so they differ only seldom in grett1 groups— now it is possible «probable» that most diverse are apt to be propagated, if so th it, would ensue that we shd have type with important differences—
5t2 11t3


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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 169r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-153 Note
Give resume of...
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11t1

Give resume of manner of descent, explained in Ch 6. (p. 26 a-. to m.-m) & repett2 Diagrams III & IV & then go on if the process be repeated, with diverge a20 will give rise to group. l20 to another groups of species; intermediate forms always supplanted, (for we have seen why infinite number of species cannot be supported) & then one the groups of species descended from a20 & will

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 169v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-153 Note
form so many...
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form so many new genera, very distinct from the groups of genera descended from l20, & still more distinct & these will form sub-family or Family — & still more distinct from groups of genera descended from m20 & z20, which will form a distinct Family & so on.—
Result will be that few species of present day will have descendants &c1

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  • 1. Very important for understanding development of the divergence diagram interpretation/ scenario: i.e. the theme of selection for extremes!!!! (which Richards challenged me on.) Date of December 1856 is very important as it means he went to work extending the principle, whose fine structure had crystallized in September of 1856, to exactly said scenario of selection for extremes. The Sept 1856 point we can see from passage quoted from Kohn 2008: 'Sept 23d /1856/ The advantage in each group becoming as different as possible, may be compared to the fact that by division of land labour most people can be supported in each country— Not only do the individuals of each group strive one against the other, but each group itself with all its members, some more numerous, some less, are struggling against all other groups, as indeed follows from each individual struggling— (Kohn 2006, DAR 205.5: 171) These passages have a lot in common. Divergence and struggle are linked in both and we can take the division of labor as a given in August 1855. The main difference is that in September 1856 we see nested intraspecific and interspecific struggles, the signature structure of divergence in the Origin. So if there was one point where the adaptive argument of the principle of divergence clicked, then this was it, just as Ospovat said nearly 30 years ago (1981).'
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 170r
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NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-154 Note

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Nov 21 /56/
11t1

The remark which some good Bot. has made that a genus ought not to be founded on even a great difference in a single part, in fact comes into Waterhouse's law (?)t2 that gretlyt3 developed parts are variable.—

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NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-155 Note

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Sept 23d /1856/
11t1

The advantage in each group becoming as different as possible, may be compared to the fact that by division of <land> labour most people can be supported in each country— Not only do the individuals of each group strive one against the other, but each group itself with all its members, some more numerous, some less, are struggling against all other groups, as indeed follows from each individual struggling—

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 172r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-156 Note
Bentham. does not Know...

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Aug 14 /56/ Bentham. does not Know any Leguminosæ diœicous.—1

Several Legums: have different flower-pods so have violets some Helianthemums «Lepidiza.—» «Ononis in S. Europe a striking case.»t3 ،& certain Malpighiaceæ
Buckman has made Parsnip cd not make carrot reverset4 case of Vilmorin.—t5
Thinks that «perfect» violets do not seed— of Legum. that less perfect flowers seed more abundantly than the perfect.—
If any species of Legum. have only «no never Mr Bentham says» abnormal flowers, such wd. have been grett6 puzzle but may be explained by «Ask Bentham.»   the two sorts—   Vid Bakt7
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  • 1. This note may be drawing on the contents of a direct communication with Bentham on or about that time. The topic is further expounded upon in a later exchange of letters. In a letter of 26 Nov [1856?], CD gingerly poses a question that went to the heart of his views on the function of flowers in cross fertilisation (). 'I venture a beg a favour of you. I have rather a wild bit of speculation afloat on the crossing of plants; & the Leguminosæ are my determined enemies, & worst of all are any forest-trees of this order.' While there is no surviving record of a letter from Bentham in response, a letter from CD a few days later refers to an earlier conversation with Bentham: 'you once told me before, about the apetalous Leguminosæ, & I think I wrote down other names besides Ononis, Lespediza & Clitoria' ().
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 172v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-156 Note
In Ch. 8...

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In Ch. 8. I may introduce composite case— Begin by saying that many plants produce very different flowers, perhaps forms [one word illegible] can come under this category, but these cases of two flowers borne by same plant, do not seem to have been a means of one form turning into another by the [one word illegible] abortion of [several words illegible] the kinds of flowers, except perhaps in the Composite case.—

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 173r
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-157 Note
Classification / as only few...
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May 11' /56/
Classification
11t1

as only few individuals of species survive & propagate, so it seems only few species in a group survive & propagate, simply, perhaps, because in struggle only few get right variations.—

When a new species is to be created, it might naturally be supposed that a new form of those groups which were best adapted wd. be created; & this wd be perfect explanation, if the type «on» which the new form was to be created had its whole organization simply related to conditions. But few admit this viewt3, that skull is formed from vertebræ owing to mere adaptation or rudimentary organs, of which every organic being probably has some. Therefo But it is confessed that in adaptation an accordance with an «preexistent» idea, plan, or archetype. Therefore new species must be created to some preexistent idea or plan.—
But then, so satisfactory to very evident1

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  • 1. Text continues at 205.5: 174.
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 173v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-157 Note
(a) give sketch...
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205.5: 173v (insert to 173r)


at1 give sketch of arrangement— group subordinate to group. I fully admit every form holds its place from being well adapted,— that we have for instance land, burrowing, aquatic marsh & aerial mammifers, from some advantage which the mamifers have, possibly intellect, over the organisms with which they have to struggle.t2

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 174r
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views to my mind...
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views to my mind in only saying that so it is.— Now according to descent can be explained this curious arrangement of all living & extinct beings. If varieties differ only from species in amount of difference & less permanence, then let us look in what Kind of groups, we find varying species. We find them in large genera,—

It is common often said that all groups are due to extinction, but perhaps not quite correct, if all that had ever lived, were put before us, yet there wd be [two words illegible] for in certain lines the birds & mammals cd not stand — It is owing to descent & extinction.

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 175r
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11 & 22 / Huxley...

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Ap. 28 /56/
11 & 22t1

Huxley very strong on every form coming into class; & only I think 5 new orders required.
؟ is there any Falacy if ornithological immensely developed wd it have not been order now. «If Protolepas developed into class — then wd have made into class. Look at Pachyderms» —& Ruminants was very strong on impossibility of coordination of comparing Crustacea & Vertebrata & how impossible to divide them into groups of equal value. Very strong about fossils not falling between classes, but into one or other class. They are t2

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 175v
NS II Principle of divergence, transitional-158 Note
classes or orders...

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classes or orders, mainly because they there has not been found intermediatet1 forms.— I think he seemed to expect that there ought to be something directly between birds & mammals.— Just agreed that from Silurian to present day a mere fragment of all that has lived.— Upset in my mind developed parallel to embryology.— This not I suspect that if the common group where say birds & Mammals have descended was discovered, we shd. Know it as intermediate, exactly intermediate is almost impossible.

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11t1
March /57/
Thinking over Owen's false classification of Man, the rule that classification by single character however different is ? has generally proved false (though useful in classification) is intelligible, as it thet2 may be greatly modified, but the whole is less modified parts, "the least apparent characters, those which require scrutiny— "nature whispers & does not proclaim aloud her affinities" «Owen Lects Lecture» are the most vauable for descent.—

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 177r
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11.t1
Hooker1 says he & Bentham2 have no doubt that Wights3 remark on Cucurbitaceæ (his own remark on Saliaceæt2 —) all depend on this that in isolated groups you have nothing near to look to, & therefore you have got to go far; but that this is common to all classes only that when you have 2 or 3 direct «& close»t3 affinities you do not look «so»t4 far.
March 1857
How will this apply to fossilst5

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  • 1. Joseph Dalton Hooker, 1817-1911. .
  • 2. George Bentham, 1800-84. .
  • 3. Robert Wight, 1796-1872. .
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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 178r
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Huxley / ramified aquiferous...
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Huxley

ramified aquiferous channels of annelids receivingt1 circcum-ambient water, are considered by you? as homologues of Tracheæ.— Are they ringed? where open?— Row of lateral sacst2 in leech & earth-worms, transitional stage: Owen considers Analogue with tracheæ.—

Does not know whether theret3 are others.t4

Milne Edwards Introduct. Z.t5 G. p. 65.1 Branchiæ theoretic in Squilla new organ added to preexisting «Crust.» type.— What say?

about classifying Races of Man. by Descent
I may state must agree to large extent with structure
{About development only test for Homologies
Cryptophialus — Prepupacoust6 flies. As development phasest7 in some those others, may it not be lost in somet8
Barneoud.—

Glaciers. Trilobite. Impregrationt9

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  • t1 receiving] conjectured transcription
  • t2 sacs] conjectured transcription
  • t3 there] conjectured transcription
  • t4 Does not know whether there are others.] in left margin; vertically upwards
  • t5 Z] retouched
  • t6 Prepupacous] conjectured transcription
  • t7 phases] word fractured
  • t8 About development … be lost in some] in brace
  • t9 Glaciers. Trilobite. Impregration] conjectured transcription; crossed
  • 1. Milne-Edwards 1851: 65. . In CD's copy, a sheet of notes (Front Slip - see ), includes the following: 'x 61 Q Nature rarely introduces a new organ p. 64, 65 In Squilla new organ introduced Q but cirripedes have shown how cautious one must be 118 do 121 do Q | 68 Q Clearly admits that new organs are at last created. 118 do | 96 On embryological similarity p98 mistake of Branchial slits p 102 not arrest p112 p114'
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(11) / In class Pigeon...
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(11)t1
xxxxt2
In class Pigeon short-beaked Tumbler wd form a genera, but we see it cannot naturally be separated from common Tumbler.t3
I believe object is to collocate ind groups on same principal, as individuals are «now generally» collocated under species.— anyhow on my idea.  same exact principle is used.—t4
If we look at classification as new means of putting number of facts under one head. If anyone cd class Pigeons &c by descent, they wd I think for all purpose, for it wd certainly «correlate structures»t5 as certainly as individuals of species   Keep same structure together. «although it might render some characters of less value, than might have been anticipated xxxx»t6 no doubt if as Huxley suggested, that Bearst7 «were»t8 descended from Cat & opossum fox from Marsupials «geneological classification»t9 itt10 wdt11 not be available.t12

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  • t3 In class Pigeon…from common Tumbler] in pencil
  • t4 I believe object…principle is used—] passage in ink
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  • t9 «geneological classification»] added in ink
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  • t12 If we look…not be available.] in pencil
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Though with Cuvier...
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Though with Cuvier (& Huxley) this enunciation of general proposition may be main end of Classification, & the distinction between a natural & artificial system be that all characters are included in former. yet I think by very many systematists it has been silently felt that something more is meant. — Show this — Anyhow if more can be included in a classification which will group [illegible] resemblance it will be felt as advantage; & this is case if we include «make» geneology the basis,

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it will necessarily include...
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it will necessarily include resemblance, from generation [one word illegible] that — it is useless to say Bear «dog» might descend from Cow & wolf from marsupial— we imply an absurdity.—    11t1
Put it this way — But on our doctrine on what does resemblance depend on community of descent — unlikeness or resembleness of descent — so that in our view consistentlyt2 geneology is included. —as cause & effect & throws light on some of above difficulties in those who look at classification، as something more than mere collection of resemblances، who include causation in their classification.

Huxley not more than 8t3/100 ordinal likelyt4 be extinct at maximumt5

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  • t5 Huxley not…at maximum] added in pencil; in right margin
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Blainville 'Osteographie' p 110
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Nov 21 /57/
11t1 t2
Huxley1 agrees if Barneoud2 true, then does explain M Edwards.3— But he thinks it quite natural that the divergence shd be earlier, ift3 in groups which have to undergo a greater amount of change from common form.—

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  • 1. Thomas Henry Huxley, 1825-95. .
  • 2. François Marius Barnéoud, b. 1821. .
  • 3. Henri Milne-Edwards, 1800-85. .
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Alluded to in Chapt 6. p. 27t1
   11.t2   Divergence Theory (Probably only just allude tot3)
case of species adapted to different stations in large country different case— But take uniform small area— very diverse types— if of ordinary character— Even Coral isletst4— &c Now imagine small volcanic islds. well capable of supporting 40 or 50 plants — stock with 2 or 3 plants & 2 or 3 insects & 1 or 2 land shells— in upwards of years (some fluctuation of climate) what wd result be? (Woburn Grass Seeds— Wheatt5 Vars)t6 Naturalised plants usually distinct generat7
So in natives only marked — 1st species found from different station, but as these will tend to spred, they can only [one word illegible] «colonise» with their parent by consider[able] change
Extinction may come into play here & total number of species — time one great element C. of Good Hope ??t8
[illegible letters]1

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  • t1 Alluded to in Chapt 6. p. 27] boxed; added in ink
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  • t3Probably only just allude to›] crossed in ink
  • t4 Coral islets] rewritten in ink over original in pencil
  • t5 'W' of Wheat] retouched in ink
  • t6 ( )] parentheses added in ink
  • t7 Naturalised plants usually distinct genera] rewritten in ink over original in pencil
  • t8 Extinction may come…C. of Good Hope ??] added in pencil; in left margin
  • 1. Ink mark (illegible letter(s)) at bottom left of page shows where some previous writing was cut.
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Let dots represent Genera... [with illustration]
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Let dots represent Genera???

[see drawing in Ms]

[at basal node of tree]: Parent of Mammalia & Placentata
[on central trunk]: Rodentia
[left edge, on short branch between left and central branches]: If these had all given descendants then there wd have been a great series.
[right edge, connected to branches]: No forms intermediate
                  Rodents
                  Marsupials

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C Darwin Esq...
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C Darwin Esq.1

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  • 1. The branching tree diagram on recto was written in pencil on back of sheet torn from a letter addressed to 'C Darwin Esq.' The correspondent's blotted writing is faintly visible on verso.
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Dot means new form... [annotated diagrams of branching trees]
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Dot means new form  —say in Birds

[see drawing in Ms]

[diagram labels]: Palæoz    Second   Tertiary

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Parent of Placentate... [with illustration]
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[see drawing in Ms]

[diagram label]: Parent of Placentate Rodentia & & Marsupialia

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Ch 11.t1
Oct 12 /58/
I believe physiological importance has no relation whatever int2 value of character for classification — Rudimentary organ, & rudimentary even in embryo— feather & hair — coelospermous &     «orthospermous p 38b Ch. 71» in [illegible characters] centres & exterior florets of Umbelliferæ — Jussieu2 on Malpighiaceæ.— p 38c. laughs "our classification to scorn"
which says—  different order

This last example will serve as argument against for classification being in fact genealogical—   so alters question..—

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  • 1. '38b' and '38c' are Ms pp 38b, 38c of Natural Selection. See , which also includes the full quotation from Jussieu.
  • 2. Adrien Henri Laurent de Jussieu, 1797-1853. .
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Seet1
Agassiz1 Essay on Classification2

11t2


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  • 1. Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz, 1807-73. .
  • 2. Agassiz 1857. . CD's highly annotated copy (with supplementary material) is a reprint of 'Part I: Essay on Classification' of the first monograph from the original publication as evidenced by its half-title page and the identical pagination rather than a copy of the subsequent 1859 London imprint of only the essay, corrected and expanded, as a separate edition.
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Pamphlet [G]293
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March 26th 61   Illustrating Lower grade of Aspicapat1 case.)
11t2
If any Botanist was told of 2 forms, differing gretlyt3 in length of pistil, in form of stigma; in length of stamens, in size of pollen-grains; in form of throat of corolla — thatt4 in cases requiring insects for fertilization; in other self- fertilizing itself — If he were told that millions of spec whole plants wd be produced, with no trace of variation in these points & with no intermediate gradations; he would certainly declare 2 good & sound species. — Yet this case of Primrose & Cowslip, yet because whole species are same; i.e [one word illegible] inherited parts similar & inherited habits of life, be empiricallyt5 rankst6 as same. —

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  • t1 Aspicapa] misspelling 'Aspicarpa'
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  • t3 gretly] CD rendering of 'greatly'
  • t4 ‹that›] conjectured transcription
  • t5 empirically] conjectured transcription
  • t6 ranks] conjectured transcription
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'Ann Mag Nat Hist' 3s 7 1861: 357
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Spencer H 'Principles of biology': 383
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'Ann Mag Nat Hist' 3s 8 1861: 125
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Transition
Ap. 23 / 63.
My ash case for Sexes.—
Sir J. Smith1 under Adoxa speaks of rule about Octandria which wd indicate that central flower often different.—

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  • 1. James Edward Smith, 1759-1828. .
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Classification — Cuvierian notion — Why however different 2 sexes are classed together (so larvæ but then not surprising] descent comes in — Then go to Mirbel1 or Richards case of atropied [one word illegible]— Physiological importance &c
11t1

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  • 1. Charles François Brisseau Mirbel, 1776-1854. .
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Escaped & self-sown Geraniums varying extremely — either all or 5 shorter stamenst1 aborted bears on passages from Geranium to Erodium.— & on Abortiont2 t3
Bears on smaller changes of conditions sufficing. Mention other trees in Hedge — Scot-firs. [I do not know whether really wild Trees do not vary as mucht4
Analogous Vart5


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  • t1 Escaped &…shorter stamens] scored in left margin
  • t2 Abortion] conjectured transcription
  • t3 extremely —…& on Abortion] scored in left margin
  • t4 Bears on…vary as much] passage crossed
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Geospiza1 an admirable instance of a diverging group becoming adapted to varying function & then giving rise to genera, & ultimately to Family.
11t1


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  • 1. Darwin collected twenty-six land-birds on the Galapagos Islands, which he describes briefly, including "a most singular group of finches", representing 13 species which Mr. Gould divided into 4 sub-groups, among them 4 species of the Geospiza, about which "the most curious fact is the perfect gradation in the size of the beaks" in .
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Lord J K 'Naturalist in Vancouver Island' 1866 2: 126
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Leidy 'Extinct vertebrate fauna' 1873: 154-160
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Morphology
Gegenbaur1 has shown in his Wirbelthiere2، that in hind-feet of tailess Batrachian the gradation by which 2 of the bones in first row of 5 tarsal bones have disappeared or are represented by cartilage— Two other bones have quite disappeared— on the other hand some small accessory bones are present, beside 2 which some have thought represent extra digits, but which view G. denies.—

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  • 1. Carl (or Karl) Gegenbaur, 1826-1903. .
  • 2. Gegenbaur 1864-1872. . CD is referring here specifically to the first part on the carpus and tarsus, published in 1864 (or later), of this important three part work on the comparative anatomy of vertebrates. Gegenbaur was a strong supporter of the theory of evolution and demonstrated that the field of comparative anatomy offered evidence in support of it, emphasizing that structural similarities constitute clues to their evolutionary history, and that underlying evidence of these connections is reflected in homology, the comparison of anatomical parts that have a common evolutionary origin.
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The Galeopithecus is a Bat with«out» skin arms give woodcut of its hand & that of Bat. —
Gat1


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  • t1 Ga] conjectured transcription; possibly partially deleted
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Appendix 'Zoology of Beagle voyage' [ref inc]
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If Mr. Swainson1 pretends that Mammals circles are nearly perfect, according to my theory must be wrong for we have not one hundredth part of Mammals that ever existed & &c with Birds

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  • 1. William Swainson, 1789-1855. .
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11t1
Hooker1 says that in Umbelliferæ, that though the commoner sub-families with many species are not very distinct, yet if we take all the sub-families, that there is a gret t2 range of character, without any marked break.—
    How is this in Compositæ & Labiatæ.—
Have little extinction; formt3 t4

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  • t2 gret] CD rendering of 'great'
  • t3 form] conjectured transcription; text torn and lost
  • t4 Have little extinction; form] in left margin; vertically upwards
  • 1. Joseph Dalton Hooker, 1817-1911. .
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Jerboa hops & walks never touching ground with front legs just like bird — striking case of adaptation
11t1


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Wt1 says M. Edwards1 has admirably discussed Waterhouse view of affinities of species to whole group & not to individual species.—
11t2


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  • 1. Henri Milne-Edwards, 1800-85. .
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Classification (.11.)
Think over my origin of sexual characters, I think explains female being more typical if it be so.— Ask Gould.1

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  • 1. John Gould, 1804-81. .
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Owen1 says the one, almost abortive & apparently useless tusk in the lower jaw of Mastodon, is gradation of Dinotherium lower jaws.

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  • 1. Richard Owen, 1804-92. .
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Most curious analogy for movement in trees «in general form» «of whole body»t1 between these two monkeyst2 Black Gibbon & Spider Monkeyt3;t4 one with most prehensile tail ;t5 & other witht6 much better hand — event7


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  • t7 ‹even›] conjectured transcription
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How extraordinary the resemblance in pollen-masses in Asclepiadæ & Orchideæ—1 «a»t1 regular monocoty dicotylidonoust2 t3 & monocott4 «monocotyledous»t5 t6.— no pointst7 of connection apparently Robert Brown2 remarkst8 «briefly» on this — far more striking case than spines of ornithorhynchus «Echidna»t9 &t10 Hedgehog.t11 «& ↑ porcupines & rats.»t12


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  • 1. CD may be referring to a conversation he had with Robert Brown, memorialized in part in & , although this specific subject is not mentioned in those notes. He is no doubt referencing (perhaps in addition to an exchange between the two) Brown's seminal paper on the mode of impregnation in Orchideae and Asclepiadeae (R. Brown 1833). .
  • 2. Robert Brown, 1773-1858. .
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Gett1 «Get»t2 case of some peculiarity «found in no other «one of its races»» common to two races of Cabbages, «Baking apples & pears»t3 apples. plums, pears «peas. dwarf. A & dwarf. B.—» or [one word illegible]. ‒ for such peculiarities will well exemplify analogy — affinity depends directly on descent — analogy oft4 "adaption" or effects of some external conditions  ⎯ Hindoo «European» tailor ،(even if race so much better/ would agree in external form of body. but would not really be anyways more [one word illegible]

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Take a small Family with (say) 3 genera. — develop one with numerous species & sections. & to two other genera give only one species to each & make better case.‒ Little doubt that the first genus wd be considered Typical

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    Ch.t1    11t2
Be sure read over discussion p. 26 a ‒ z & in Ch 6 —

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In accounting for...
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In accounting for origin of rattle snake no difficulty if it cd be shewn rattle of any use «Do they go in pairs??»t1 and intermediate forms. Those that think that an animal admirably provide to find its own sustenance shall purposely have a structure rendering such provision partly futile must yet be startled that other snakes quite as venomous & I believe incomparably more active & again others equally inactive have no rattle. Now I have shewn

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now from habits...
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now from habits of trigonocephalus we may suspect that the vibration of tail & consequent rattle is somehow useful. & in the minute terminal button we have first indication of intermediate form «as I long ago remarked». Has not rattle snake wide range – A small argument for utility of rattle or more properly that it is not injurious otherwise other venous genera wd have beaten this out of the field.

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Letter from Charles Robert Darwin to Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker; written at [Down]
[1856.12.early]

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Letter from Edmund Saul Dixon to Charles Robert Darwin; written at [place unstated]

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Letter from Hugh Falconer to Charles Robert Darwin; written at [place unstated]

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 216
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
Letter from [John Edward Gray] to Charles Robert Darwin; written at [place unstated]
annotated by Charles Robert Darwin

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 217
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
Letter from [Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker] to Charles Robert Darwin; written at [place unstated]
more at See DAR 47: 214
[1862.03.26.after]
Folio Extent: 1 sheet only;

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Cambridge University Library DAR 205.5: 218-220
Principle of divergence, transitional organs, instincts
Letter from Thomas Henry Huxley to Charles Robert Darwin; written at [place unstated]
annotated by Charles Robert Darwin
[1857][.10.03.before]

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Reproduced with the permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin
Transcription and apparatus © American Museum of Natural History